Аннотация и ключевые слова
Аннотация (русский):
Introduction. High fiber bakery products can be a healthy snack option for consumers. Our study focused on the effect of replacing wheat flour with okara flour on the physicochemical, nutritional, textural, and sensory attributes of biscuits. Study objects and methods. We used 2, 4, 6, and 8% w/w okara flour to prepare biscuits. Refined wheat flour (control), mixed flour (okara and wheat flour), dough, and biscuits were assessed for physicochemical, textural, and nutritional properties, as well as sensory characteristics. The volume of particles was higher in 8% okara flour (145 μm) compared to refined wheat flour (91 μm). Results and discussion. 2, 4, 6, and 8% w/w okara flour biscuits showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower spread ratio and weight loss than biscuits from wheat flour. Hardness, stickiness, and cohesiveness of 2, 4, 6, and 8% okara flour dough were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower compared to the control, resulting in decreased cutting strength and increased hardness of okara flour biscuits. Moisture, protein, ash, fat, and crude fiber contents of 2, 4, 6, and 8% okara biscuits were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher compared to the control biscuits. The sensory evaluation suggested that 4% okara biscuits had higher consumer acceptability and were superior to the control and other okara biscuits. Conclusion. Mixed flour biscuits made from okara and wheat flours were superior in physicochemical, nutritional, textural, and sensory attributes, which allows considering them as an alternative healthy snack.

Ключевые слова:
Flour, dough, particle size, texture, biscuits, nutrient content, sensory evaluation
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Biscuit is a popular, versatile bakery item consumed
by all levels of society worldwide due to its taste,
affordability, convenience, and an extended shelf life [1].
Biscuits, or cookies, are usually low in fiber, vitamins
or minerals, and are highly calorific [2]. Thus, they
cannot be added to the group of healthy foods. However,
consumers are seriously concerned about their health
issues. For this reason, bakery products with a high fiber
content may be a choice for health-conscious people.
Biscuits have good consumer acceptance, just as snacks
do, and a long shelf life. Therefore, there is scope for
nutritional development and fortification [3].
Okara is a pulpy, fiber-rich by-product of tofu
and soy milk processing. Soy okara is a rich source of
fiber [4]. It is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose,
and lignin, as well as protein, lipids, vitamins,
phytochemicals, and phytosterols [5, 6]. According to
Grizotto et al., one ton of processed soybeans could
produce about two tons of okara following soymilk
production [7]. As a result, every year enormous
quantities of okara create disposal problems. To solve
them, okara may be used as a dietary additive. It can
further be processed to convenient and useful forms
such as powders or extrudates [8]. It can be used directly
in soups or salads. In addition, we can now find many
online recipes where freshly produced okara is used as a
raw ingredient.
However, it is hard to find an industrial product of
soy okara because of its high moisture content (around
85 g) and poor textural quality that may cause rapid
deterioration [5]. Some possible applications of okara might include baked goods, beef patties, and coconut
cookies due to its high amount of fiber and protein [8, 9].
Dietary fiber is a significant component in bakery
products, confectionery, meat, beverage, and dairy
items [8]. However, supplementing baked products with
dietary fiber may change the flavor, texture, and taste of
final products [3].
A number of studies have shown the application
of okara flour in tortillas, cookies, roti and parata, and
even in breakfast cereals [8, 10–12]. The use of okara as
a gluten free all-purpose flour may add further value to
this agro waste and bring significant nutritional benefits.
Our study aimed to identify the effect of okara flour
on the properties and nutritional composition of biscuits.
Soybeans and refined wheat flour were collected
from K-R Market (Mymensingh, Bangladesh). Sodiumbi-
carbonate (food grade) was supplied by Mitali
Scientific Co. Ltd., Bangladesh.
Whole soybeans were soaked in a 0.5% NaHCO3
solution (1:2) at 60°C for four hours in a water bath
(Schufzart, Membart GmBH+ Co., Bϋchenbach,
Germany). The water was discarded and the soaked
beans were dehulled before grinding to remove
unwanted substances using a dehuller. The hydrated
soybeans were blanched at 90 ± 2°C for 10 min with the
addition of 0.5% NaHCO3 (w/v), and the solution was
drained well. The beans were washed with potable water
for three times [13]. The blanched beans were ground
with the addition of hot water (100°C) [bean to water
ratio = 1:4] using a super mass collider (Masuko Sangyo
Co. Ltd., Kawaguchi, Japan).
Soy okara was collected after soy milk extraction by
filtering through double layers of cheese cloth. Soy okara
was dried in a cabinet drier (Dayton Electric MFG. Co.
Ltd., USA) at 60°C for 24 h and ground using a grinder.
The ground okara was sieved (420-micron mesh size)
and kept in a desiccator to reduce the moisture content
by up to 5% [11]. The powder was finally placed in a
sealed polyethylene-laminated aluminum foil bag and
kept at –20°C before analysis and further processing.
Moisture, protein, ash, and fat contents of soy okara
flour, refined wheat flour, and biscuits were determined
according to the AOAC method [14]. Genistein was
determined by the HPLC method as modified by [15].
Particle size was measured according to [16].
Average particle sizes (d3,2 – surface-weighted mean
diameter, Sauter mean diameter and d4,3 – volumeweighted
mean diameter, De Brouckere mean diameter)
of refined wheat flour, as well as 2, 4, 6 and 8% soy
okara flour were determined using a particle size
analyzer (Malvern Zetasizer Nano ZS, UK) with the
attachment of dry feed.
Refined wheat flour (RWF), okara flour, and other
ingredients were weighed according to Table 1 and
mixed together. Fat was mixed with the ingredients and
water was added to the mixer to form dough. The dough
was kneaded, rolled to uniform thickness (5 mm) and
cut in round shape biscuits of 4 cm in diameter. They
were baked at 220°C for 10 min and cooled at room
temperature. The biscuits were packed in HDPE and
kept in desiccators for further analysis.
The spread ratio, an essential quality parameter of
biscuits, was determined as follows:
Spread ratio = D / T
where D is the average diameter and T is the average
thickness of biscuits after baking, cm.
Weight loss (WL) of biscuits during baking was
calculated by the following formula [17]:
WL = (Wdough – Wbiscuit) / Wdough × 100
where Wdough is the weight before baking and Wbiscuit is
the weight after baking five samples, g.
The doughs made from different amounts of soy
okara flour (2, 4, 6, and 8%) and only refined wheat flour
(control) were tested for firmness by a penetration test.
The dough was placed in a concentric cylinder (30 mm
in diameter) under a cylindrical probe (5 mm) (Stable
Micro Systems, UK). The test conditions included
2 mm/s pretest speed, 3 mm/s test speed, 10 mm/s posttest
speed, 50 kg load, and 60% strain. When the probe
penetrated 60% of the dough, it was found to gain its
original position. The absolute peak force of the forcetime
curve was taken as dough firmness [18]. Each
dough was tested three times.
Dough strength, adhesion, and stickiness tests were
carried out using an SMS/Chen-Hosney Stickiness Cell
and Prespex cylinder probe (25 mm) (Stable Micro
Systems, UK). The test conditions included 2 mm/s
pretest speed, 2 mm/s test speed, 10 mm/s post-test
speed, 40 g trigger force, 3 mm return distance, and 10 s
contact time [19–21]. The positive peak constraint from
the curve was considered as stickiness force. The area
falling under this force-distance curve indicates the
work of adhesion. The distance of sample extension
Table 1 Basic formulation for preparation of biscuits (on 100 g
flour basis)
Ingredients, g Samples
(wheat flour)
(with okara flour)
Wheat flour 100 98 96 94 92
Okara flour – 2 4 6 8
Sugar 50 50 50 50 50
Oil 40 40 40 40 40
Baking powder 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Milk powder 5 5 5 5 5
Salt 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Egg 45 45 45 45 45
Ammonium bicarbonate 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Momin M.A. et al. Foods and Raw Materials, 2020, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. Х–Х
during prove return was considered as dough strength or
cohesiveness [18].
The three-point bending test was carried out
employing a 3-point bending rig (Stable Micro Systems,
UK) connected to a texture analyzer. The test conditions
included 10 mm/s pretest speed, 1 mm/s test speed,
10 mm/s post-test speed, 10 mm distance, and 50 kg
load cell; descending development was continued till
the biscuits broke. The most extreme constraint was
recorded as the “hardness” of the biscuits [22].
The cutting strength of biscuits was measured using
an HDP/BS blade-type texture analyzer (Stable Micro
Systems, UK). The biscuits were set on the platform,
and the blade was connected to the crosshead of the
instruments. The test conditions included 2 mm/s pretest
speed, 2 mm/s test speed, 10 mm/s post-test speed, and
5 mm distance. The outright peak force of the curve was
recognized as the cutting strength of the biscuits [18,
21]. Textural properties of the dough and biscuits were
determined by a TA-XT plus texture analyzer (Stable
Micro Systems, UK) with Texture ExpertTM software.
The color of biscuits was analyzed by a colorimeter
(Chroma Meter CR400, Konica Minolta, Japan) under
illuminant: *C, D65 and space: LAB. It was determined
in L*, a* and b* system, where L* is lightness (100:
white, 0: black), a* is redness (+)/greenness (−), and b*
indicates yellowness (+)/blueness (−). All analyses were
performed in triplicate.
The sensory evaluation of the control and
experimental samples included color, texture, flavor,
and overall acceptability by ten semi-trained panelists
on a 9-point hedonic scale (9 = like extremely,
8 = like very much, 7= like moderately, 6 = like slightly,
5 = neither like nor dislike, 4 = dislike slightly,
3 = d islike m oderately, 2 = d islike v ery m uch a nd
1 = dislike extremely). The results were evaluated by
analyses of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s new
multiple range test (DMRT) of the Statistical Analysis
System (SAS).
The physicochemical, nutritional, and textural
properties were determined in replicate and statistically
analyzed by a two-way ANOVA using the Microsoft
Table 2 shows the nutritional composition of
okara and refined wheat flour (RWF). Okara flour had
significantly higher contents of protein, fat, ash, and
crude fiber compared to wheat flour. However, when
making biscuits, it is important to add wheat flour as
it contains gluten, which makes the dough adhesive
and cohesive. Yet, gluten is also responsible for celiac
diseases [23]. In our study, we substituted 2, 4, 6, and
8% of wheat flour with the same quantities of gluten-free
okara flour.
Figure 1 illustrates the distribution of particle sizes
in the mixed flour (2, 4, 6, and 8% okara flour mixed
with wheat flour) and control flour (RWF). We identified
two distinct peaks for all mixed flour samples, whereas
the first peak in the control was not as distinct, showing
that the particle size distribution of all flours was
bimodal. The results were in agreement with [16] and
[24]. We also found the maximum particle size to be ~
100 μm, indicating a higher volume. The particle sizes
for both the experimental and control samples ranged
from 0.1 to 100 μm, but the volume of particles was the
highest at ~ 145 μm and 91 μm, respectively. The results
indicated that refined wheat flour had lower protein
and fiber contents [25]. Hard dough prepared with finer
particle-size flour has higher density, resulting in less
developed biscuits during baking [26]. Thus, coarser,
mixed or composite, flour is most desirable for preparing
hard dough biscuits.
The mean volume diameter and the surface mean
diameter of refined wheat flour (70.05 and 27.5 μm,
respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller than
those of all mixed flour samples (83.7 and 32.8 μm,
respectively). There was no significant difference among
2, 4, 6, and 8% okara flour samples (P > 0.05). The flour
particle size often affects the biscuits’ water absorption
capacity, density, and spread ratio. When fine particle-
Table 2 Chemical composition of okara and refined wheat
flour (RWF)
Components Okara flour Refined wheat flour
Moisture, % 13.75a ± 1.25 12.65a ± 1.50
Protein, % 35.14a ± 2.00 13.00b ± 1.90
Fat, % 10.78a ± 1.40 1.80b ± 1.00
Ash, % 3.95a ± 0.50 1.47b ± 0.25
Crude fiber, % 30.01a ± 2.25 3.23b ± 0.50
Genistein, mg/100 g
of okara flour
5.05 ± 0.50 nd
Mean ± SD represents the average of three replicates for each analysis
Different letters in the same row show significant differences
(P < 0.05)
nd = not determined
Figure 1 Particle size of refined wheat flour and wheat flour
mixed with okara flour
wheat flour with 2% okara flour
wheat flour with 4% okara flour
wheat flour with 6% okara flour
wheat flour with 8% okara flour
wheat flour only
Momin M.A. et al. Foods and Raw Materials, 2020, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. Х–Х
size flour is used for hard dough biscuits, it usually
results in higher density and less effective baking
properties [26]. Therefore, coarser composite flour is
more desirable.
The weight of okara flour biscuits was higher than
that of biscuits prepared with only refined wheat flour
(control). The biscuits prepared with coarser 2, 4, 6,
and 8% okara flour mixes had a significantly (P < 0.05)
higher thickness and a smaller diameter than the control
(RWF) biscuits (Table 3) due to higher development
during baking [26]. As a result, they had a reduced
spread ratio compared to the control. The spread ratio
correlates with texture, grain fineness, bite, and overall
mouth feel of the biscuits [27]. Additionally, using flour
high in protein and fiber in place of wheat flour provides
a reduced spread ratio [28].
Among the experimental biscuits, 8% okara
samples had a smaller diameter and a lower spread ratio
compared to the others (Table 3). This might be due to
comparatively higher protein and fiber contents in 8%
okara biscuits. Further, mixed flour biscuits showed a
significant (P < 0.05) reduction in weight loss compared
to biscuits from wheat flour (Table 3). However, there
was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in weight loss
among 2, 4, 6, and 8% okara flour biscuits. The lower
weight loss in the experimental biscuits might be due
to better water absorption by the flour components due
to protein hydration, with less water evaporated during
baking [17].
Moisture, ash, protein, and fat contents in the biscuits
prepared with okara flour were higher than those in the
biscuits from control flour (RWF) (Fig. 2). Among mixed
flours, 8% okara flour provided significantly (P ≤ 0.0.5)
higher nutrient contents compared to the others. The
biscuits made with 8% okara flour had a higher moisture
content than the control or the other mixed-flour samples
due to a greater volume of water required at the time of
dough making for its high fiber and protein contents.
Table 3 Effect of okara flour on physical properties of biscuits
Biscuits Weight, g Diameter (D), cm Thickness (T), cm Spread ratio (D/T) Weight loss, %
Control (refined wheat flour) 4.95b ± 0.40 4.62a ± 0.32 0.62e ± 0.06 7.45a ± 0.80 11.46a ± 0.35
2% okara flour 5.94a ± 0.50 4.58b ± 0.50 0.63d ± 0.05 7.27b ± 0.70 10.01b ± 0.55
4% okara flour 5.95a ± 0.35 4.56c ± 0.42 0.64c ± 0.02 7.13c ± 0.50 10.03b ± 0.50
6% okara flour 5.94a ± 0.70 4.55c ± 0.45 0.65b ± 0.01 7.00d ± 0.90 10.01b ± 0.65
8% okara flour 5.93a ± 0.55 4.53d ± 0.60 0.66a ± 0.01 6.86e ± 0.80 10.09b ± 0.75
Mean ± SD represents the average of five replicates for each analysis
Different letters in the same column indicate significant difference (P < 0.05)
Figure 2 Nutritional components of biscuits from wheat flour
and okara flour-enriched biscuits.
(wheat flour)
Table 4 Textural properties of dough and biscuits from refined wheat flour and okara flour
Samples Dough Biscuits
Firmness, N Stickiness, N Work of adhesion
strength, mm
strength, N
Hardness, N
Control (refined wheat flour) 4.45a ± 0.05 0.28a ± 0.05 5.20a ± 0.5 0.65a ± 0.10 64.94a ± 2.00 15.20c ± 19.05
2% okara flour 3.90b ± 0.09 0.21b ± 0.07 4.75b ± 0.3 0.54b ± 0.09 55.75b ± 1.75 17.55b ± 1.55
4% okara flour 3.79c ± 0.07 0.18b ± 0.05 4.50c ± 0.4 0.50b ± 0.01 52.55b ± 1.55 18.10b ± 1.25
6% okara flour 3.66cd ± 0.05 0.16b ± 0.03 4.25c ± 0.1 0.40c ± 0.03 43.90c ± 2.50 18.76a ± 2.00
8% okara flour 3.45d ± 0.04 0.14b ± 0.05 3.50d ± 0.7 0.35c ± 0.05 40.35cd ± 2.75 19.05a ± 2.05
Mean ± SD represents the average of five replicates for each analysis
Different letters in the same column indicate significant difference (P < 0.05)
Figure 3 Color parameters of biscuits from wheat flour
and okara flour-enriched biscuits
L* a* b*
(wheat flour)
Momin M.A. et al. Foods and Raw Materials, 2020, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. Х–Х
Flours rich in protein require much water to make
machinable dough as protein is not sufficiently hydrated
to form a network [29].
Dough firmness, strength (cohesiveness), and
stickiness were significantly lower in 2, 4, 6, and 8%
okara flour samples compared to the control (wheat
flour only) (Table 4). Decreased dough firmness is
usually related to a high fat content in formulations.
This disrupts the development of a gluten network by
lubricating the complete matrix and making it hydrated
[17, 30]. Okara flour is gluten-free, which also
accounted for lower firmness in mixed flour dough
compared to dough made from wheat flour only.
Stickiness is a significant parameter of dough quality
as it affects the handling convenience and may damage
the apparatus [31]. Okara flour dough showed lower
stickiness compared to the control, owing to a higher
water absorption ability. Lower stickiness and adhesion
of okara dough correlate with a greater water absorption
capacity, a comparatively low gluten content, and a
higher fat content [16].
The three-point bending test showed significantly
lower (P ≤ 0.05) hardness for 2, 4, 6, and 8% okara
flour biscuits compared to wheat biscuits (Table 4). This
was due to a high protein content and a better water
absorption capacity in the mixed flour. 8% okara flour
biscuits seemed harder than those with 2, 4, and 6%
okara flour due to a lower gluten content compared to the
control and the other mixed flours.
There was a significant (P < 0.05) difference for all
five types of biscuits in terms of color (Fig. 3). The L*
value of all composite flour biscuits was lower than that
in the refined wheat flour biscuits due to the presence
of natural anti-browning substance such as genistein
in okara flour [32]. In particular, its genistein content
was 5.05 ± 0.5 mg/100 g of okara flour (Table 2). 8%
okara flour had the highest L* value, indicating less
brown pigment formation. The result suggested that
okara flour could reduce brown pigments. We observed
high positive a* values (redness) for 2, 4, 6 and 8%
okara flour biscuits. Positive b* values (yellowness)
were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in mixed flour
biscuits compared to the control due to the presence of
phytochemicals and crude fiber in okara flour [11].
The results of sensory evaluation of biscuits enriched
with okara flour and control biscuits are shown in
Table 5. The sample with 4% okara flour showed the
finest sensory characteristics in terms of color, texture,
flavor, and overall acceptability. However, the other
samples were also found acceptable. A DMRT analysis
revealed that 4% okara biscuits were significantly
better in color, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability
than other biscuits containing 2, 6, and 8% okara flour.
However, increasing the amount of okara flour decreased
the level of overall acceptability.
Biscuits prepared from mixed okara (2, 4, 6, and 8%)
and refined wheat flour were found to outperform refined
wheat flour biscuits in physicochemical, nutritional,
textural, and sensory attributes. Okara flour biscuits
had an inferior spread ratio, but higher fiber and protein
contents. We also found them to have poor cutting
strength and greater hardness. Okara flour biscuits had
better color due to the presence of genistein. 4% okara
biscuits had higher consumer acceptability on a 9-point
hedonic scale. Decreased dough hardness due to okara
flour diminished the cutting strength and increased
hardness in the corresponding biscuits. Thus, we can
conclude that biscuits prepared from okara flour can be
considered as a healthy snack option.
Md. A. R. Mazumder and Thottiam V. Ranganathan
conceptualized and supervised the work. Anjuman
A. Begum and Md. F. Jubayer were involved in
manuscript writing and data analysis. Md. A. Momin
and Asmaul H. Nupur performed laboratory experiments
and data collection.
The authors declare that there is no conflict
of interest.

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