Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
Introduction. Development of novel meat products with better quality and biological value remains one of priority objectives of modern food industry. New meat products correspond with the principles of healthy diet due to their improved fatty acid profile and lower sodium content. The present research featured semi-smoked sausages with 15% of cedar oilcake and a low-sodium curing mix. The cedar nut oilcake is as a source of highly unsaturated fatty acids and high-grade protein. In addition to the physiological effect, the low-sodium curing mix increases the resistance of the combined fat phase to deterioration during storage. Study objects and methods. Sausages of control and experimental formulations were made in laboratory conditions. The control formulation included raw second-grade beef, semi-fat pork (30% of fat), and traditional curing ingredients, i.e. sodium chloride and nitrite curing mix. In the experimental formulation, 15% of the semi-fat pork was replaced by cedar oil cake, and 30% of sodium chloride – by magnesium chloride. The samples were tested for fatty and amino acid composition, biological value of the lipid and protein phase, chemical composition, as well as physical, chemical, and sensory properties. Other research data included water activity, as well as acid, peroxide, and thiobarbituric value during storage at a temperature of 4 ± 2°C for 15 days. Results and discussion. The study of fatty acid composition showed significant differences in the ratio of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, P ˂ 0.05) in the samples. When 15% of pork was replaced by cedar oilcake, the amount of SFA decreased by 19.8%, while the content of MUFA and PUFA increased by 10.2% and 24.9%, respectively. These changes improved the indices of atherogenicity and thrombogenicity. The quality of the protein component also improved, as the utility coefficient of amino acids increased from 0.83 to 0.87, and the coefficient of comparable redundancy decreased from 7.2 g/100 g of protein to 5.35 g/100 g of protein. The sausages with cedar oil cake and low sodium chloride content received a high consumer evaluation. The hydrolysis of the lipid fraction was the same in both samples. The process of lipid oxidation was inhibited, which can partially be explained by a lower water activity. Conclusion. The biological value, consumer quality, and storage stability of semi-smoked sausages could be improved by replacing fat-containing meat raw materials with cedar oil cake and reducing sodium chloride content. The new product demonstrated a better nutrition quality and can be recommended for mass production.

Meat products, formulations, fatty acid composition, sodium, lipid oxidation, water activity
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Contemporary domestic and foreign studies
prove that diet can significantly improve health and
quality of life. The specific character of raw materials
and processing technology makes meat one of the
most important food products [1, 2]. A healthy diet
can prevent cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and
hypertension. As a rule, a healthy diet implies reducing
or eliminating the content of cholesterol, saturated fatty
acids, and sodium, as well as enriching food products
with biologically active components of plant origin.
Gorbatov All-Russia Meat Research Institute
summarized and structured materials on the fatty acid
composition of meat obtained from various farm animals
and poultry. The study indicated a significant difference
in their fat profile and a general tendency to an increased
content of saturated fatty acids [3].
Semi-smoked sausages are meat products with a
high content of fat component and sodium. However,
they are extremely popular with consumers. As a
result, domestic meat industry produces them in a large
quantity and assortment [4]. Semi-smoked sausages are
Gurinovich G.V. et al. Foods and Raw Materials, 2020, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 30–39
made from comminuted meat raw materials subjected to
roasting, cooking, and smoking. The simple production
technology, as well as their appearance and sensory
indices, make semi-smoked sausages suitable for
programmed formation of sensory properties, as well as
nutritional and biological value.
The selection and justification of the fat component
is extremely important when developing a new
technology for semi-smoked sausages of improved
quality and nutritional value. The fat component, its
type and amount determine the total fat content, fatty
acid composition, and flavor of the final product. A high
content of saturated fatty acids in the fat component may
decrease the biological value and digestibility of the
fat, while a big amount of unsaturated acids increases
the risk of oxidation during heat treatment and storage.
The latter may lead to the formation of various organic
compounds, e.g. aldehydes, ketones, hydroxy acids, etc.
They possess a specific intense smell, which can affect
the results of sensory evaluation and reduce product
safety [5–8]. The specific smell of meat products also
appears when lipids enter the Maillard reaction during
heat treatment [9]. However, lipids are able to retain and
enhance pleasant smells formed by other components
of the formulation. Therefore, lipids can develop both
programmed and unwanted tastes of the final product.
Domestic and foreign studies of the fat component
in semi-smoked sausages feature various ways of
reducing the mass fraction of fat and improving the
fatty acid composition. As a rule, researchers propose
two solutions. The first solution is to use low-calorie
ingredients. The second solution is to replace animal
fat with highly unsaturated vegetable oils or fat raw
materials of plant origin. The second approach is more
advantageous, since fat is involved in the formation
of plastic consistency and aromatic properties of meat
Due to the differences in the physical properties
of raw meat and vegetable oils, the latter cannot be
directly used in sausage production. The problem is that
direct replacement can misbalance the meat system and
result in fat pockets in the final product [10–13]. This
problem can be solved by changing the physicochemical
properties of vegetable oils, e.g. by microencapsulation
or emulsification. The changes should be aimed either
at increasing the stability of the oils to oxidation, or
at improving the water- and fat-holding properties of
ground meat [14, 15].
Muguerza et al. replaced 20% of pork backfat with
pre-emulsified olive oil in the formulation of Chorizo de
Pamplona, a traditional Spanish dry fermented sausage.
This reduced the total fat content by 53% and increased
the proportion of MUFA. Similar results were obtained
when pork fat was substituted by soybean oil. Olive and
soybean oils reduced cholesterol content by 12.92% and
5.65%, respectively [16–18].
Korean scientists studied emulsified rice bran oil.
Its fatty acid profile fully meets the requirements of the
World Health Organization (WHO). The research in
question used a combined fat phase that included 55%
of bacon and 45% of rice bran oil. Such combination
provided an optimal ratio of PUFA and SFA and did
not reduce the stability of the meat emulsion [19, 20].
Linseed, rapeseed, perilla, canola, camellia, and grape
seed oils also proved to have a positive effect on the ratio
of SFA and USFA in various sausage products [11, 12,
21, 22].
There have been a lot of studies related to the
use of plant materials to reduce the mass fraction
of fat in meat products while enriching them with
dietary fiber and USFA. By adding 3–6% of flax
flour, it was possible to increase the amount of
α-linolenic acid and improve the ratio of PUFA and
SFA in minced beef cutlets [7]. When used in meat
product formulations, raw materials with a high
content of dietary fiber, e.g. bran of rice, oat, or wheat,
decreased the mass fraction of fat and SFA [23–26].
The same effect was obtained by using soy, lemon, tiger
nuts, and pea fibers [27–32].
Nuts and nut derivatives, e.g. oil, flour, oil meal,
or oil cake, can serve as an alternative source of
unsaturated fats. Oil cake is rich in fat and contains
complete protein and antioxidant vitamins. There have
been studies that featured fortifying meat products with
hazelnuts and walnuts [24, 33]. Nuts of Siberian cedar
pine and their products demonstrated an especially high
biological value [35, 37].
The present research featured the biological value
of semi-smoked sausages with cedar oilcake (CO) and a
lower sodium content achieved by partial replacement of
sodium chloride with magnesium chloride. The product
with the combined fat phase was tested for stability
during refrigerated storage.
The study featured semi-smoked sausages (for
formulations – see Table 1). The control and the
experimental formulations differed in the basic
and auxiliary raw materials. In the experimental
formulation, 15% of semi-fat pork with a fat content
of ≤ 30% was replaced by 15% of cedar oil meal. The
chemical composition of cedar oil cake makes it a
balanced complex of proteins, lipids, nutrients, vitamins,
and dietary fibers. Oil cake proteins possess a high
biological value and all essential acids, including high
amounts of tryptophan, lysine, and sulfur-containing
amino acids [36]. Oil cake looks like a cream-colored
powder, free of foreign matters; its structure flakes and
is easy to deform. Oil cake is oily to the touch and has a
sweet taste and a light smell of cedar nuts. The amount
of cedar oil cake in the formulation and the choice of the
final product were based on the available data on the use
of nuts in various meat products.
Nitrite and edible salt (sodium chloride) were used
as curing ingredients for the control sample. In the
Gurinovich G.V. et al. Foods and Raw Materials, 2020, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 30–39
experimental formulation, the curing mix included
nitrite salt and edible salt, 30% of which was replaced
with magnesium chloride. This replacement was aimed
at reducing the sodium in the product. According to
WHO, its consumption exceeds the physiological need,
thus leading to nutritionally dependent diseases [38].
From the technological point of view, the replacement
of edible salt with sodium chloride makes the fat
component resistant to oxidation, especially if the
proportion of unsaturated acids is high.
In both the experimental and the control
formulations, nitrite salt was added in an amount that
provided the standard content of sodium nitrite, i.e.
0.075% from the weight of the raw meat.
The sausages were produced from chilled secondgrade
trimmed beef and semi-fat pork. The raw meat
was ground using a meat grinder plate with the bore
diameter of 2–3 mm for beef and 8–12 mm for pork. The
ground meat was mixed with 2.7% of curing ingredients
(from the weight of the raw material). The resulting
materials were stored for ripening at 0–4°C for 24 h. The
ripened raw meat was used to prepare sausages. Cedar
oil cake was subjected to no prior preparation. It was
stored at –12°С and briefly heated at room temperature
before being introduced into the formulation.
The formulations of the experimental and the control
samples were combined in the mixer in the following
order: beef, pork, cedar oil cake (in the experimental
sample), sugar, spices, and garlic. The components were
mixed for 6–8 min until smooth. The temperature of the
ground meat after the mixing did not exceed 12°C.
The ground meet was molded into an artificial
protein sausage casing. The sausages were kept in a
hanging room for 4 h at 2–4°С. After that, the sausages
underwent heat treatment: first, they were dried at
60°C for 30–40 min, then cooked at 70 ± 2°C, and,
finally, smoked at 72–74°C until the surface obtained
the required reddish-brown color. Subsequently, the
sausages were cooled to ≤ 6°С and stored at 2–6°С for
15 days.
A comparative analysis of the parameters of the
biological value and quality was performed based on
the sensory properties and the chemical, fatty acid,
and amino acid compositions. During storage, a set
of experiments was performed to study the oxidative
damage to the lipid fraction by determining acid,
peroxide, and thiobarbituric values, as well as water
Research methods. The sensory evaluation was
done by tasting. It involved a nine-point scale, as
required by State Standard 9959-2015I.
As for the chemical composition of the sausages, the
mass fraction of protein was determined by the Kjeldahl
method (State Standard 25011-2017II), the mass fraction
of fat – by the Soxhlet method (State Standard 23042-
2015III), the mass fraction of ash – by the mineralization
of the batch weight (State Standard 31727-2012 (ISO 936:
1998)IV), the mass moisture content – by roasting the
sample to constant batch weight (State Standard 33319-
The fatty acid composition was determined
by gas chromatography using an Agilent 7890A
chromatograph. The mass fraction of methyl ethers of
fatty acids was defined in relation to their total amount,
as required by the State Standard 51483-99VI. High
purity nitrogen was used as the carrier gas, while grade
A hydrogen was used as auxiliary.
The obtained results made it possible to calculate
the ratios of SFA, MUFA, and PUFA, as well as the
indices of atherogenicity and thrombogenicity using the
Wilbrich and Southhein formula [39, 40].
The amino acid composition was determined by
capillary electrophoresis using a Kapel’-105M system.
The balance of the amino acid composition was
established by the method of test values: the total of
the essential amino acids (EAA), the utility coefficient
of the essential amino acids (U), and the coefficient of
comparable redundancy.
The peroxide value (PV) was determined by direct
titration of peroxides formed during the oxidation of
the fat fraction with a sodium thiosulfate solution.
I State Standard 9959-2015. Meat and meat products. General conditions
for sensory assessment. Moscow: Standartinform; 2010. 23 p.
II State Standard 25011-2017. Meat and meat products. Methods for determining
protein. Moscow: Standartinform; 2018. 14 p.
III State Standard 23042-2015. Meat and meat products. Methods for
determining fat. Moscow: Standartinform; 2016. 9 p.
IV State Standard 31727-2012. (ISO 936:1998). Meat and meat products.
Method for determining the mass fraction of total ash. Moscow:
Standartinform; 2013. 12 p.
V State Standard 33319-2015. Meat and meat products. Method for determining
the mass fraction of moisture. Moscow: Standartinform;
2016. 6 p.
VI State Standard 51483-99. Vegetable oils and animal fats. Using
gas chromatography to determine the mass fraction of methyl ethers
of individual fatty acids to their total. Moscow: Standartinform;
2008. 11 p.
Table 1 Formulations of semi-smoked sausage
Ingredients Samples
without oil
cake (control)
with oil cake
Critical ingredients, kg
Trimmed second-grade beef 50.0 50.0
Semi-fat trimmed pork 50.0 35.0
Cedar oil cake – 15.0
Auxiliary ingredients, kg/100 kg
Nitrite salt 1.250 1.062
Edible salt (sodium chloride) 1.450 1.146
Magnesium chloride – 0.492
Granulated sugar 0.100 0.100
Black pepper 0.120 0.120
Allspice 0.060 0.060
Red pepper 0.060 0.060
Nutmeg 0.050 0.050
Fresh garlic 0.100 0.100
Gurinovich G.V. et al. Foods and Raw Materials, 2020, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 30–39
A sample of semi-smoked sausage was crashed to
extract fat with chloroform in the presence of anhydrous
sodium thiosulfate. The resulting extract was dissolved
in glacial acetic acid and titrated with a 0.01N sodium
thiosulfate solution in the presence of a saturated
solution of potassium iodide and starch. The PV value
was expressed in mmol ½ O/kg [41].
The acid value was determined by direct titration
in a neutral alcohol-ether mix of free fatty acids with
a 0.1N sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of
phenolphthalein. The extraction of fat from the crashed
samples was performed similarly to the method that
was used to determine PV, i.e. extraction from a crashed
sample with chloroform [41].
The thiobarbituric value (TBV) was determined by a
modified distillation method: a colored complex formed
as a result of the interaction of malondialdehyde with
2-thiobarbituric acid. The crushed sample was heated
in distilled water where hydrochloric acid was added.
The resulting distillate was mixed with a solution of
thiobarbituric acid and heated in a water bath to develop
a color reaction. The color intensity of the resulting
solutions was measured using a spectrophotometer at a
wavelength of 538 nm (green filter) [41].
The mass fraction of chlorides was established by
argentometric titration. The method is based on the
determination of chlorine ions by titration of an aqueous
extract from the sample with a solution of silver nitrate
in the presence of chromic acid potassium.
The content of sodium ions in the finished product
was determined with the help of an ELIS-112Na ionselective
electrode (Russia). The range of determination
of Na+ ion activity equaled 1.0–3.5 pNa. The test
involved a 150-MI pH meter.
Water activity (Аw) was determined by the cryoscopic
method using an AVK-4 water activity analyzer
(Russia). To determine the water activity, the test sample
was cooled, while its temperature was measured using
the precision meter. Then, a special program was used
to analyze the process thermogram and determine the
cryoscopic temperature, which was converted into
values of the water activity indicator. The results were
processed using a personal computer [42].
The values were obtained after triplicate tests of
homogeneous sausage material. The arithmetic mean
and standard deviation were used to define the standard
error of the mean and the confidence limits. The
calculation took into account the Student’s coefficient
t (n, p) at the confidence level of 95% (P = 0.05) and the
number of measurements.
The biological value was assessed by comparing
the fatty acid and the amino acid compositions of the
semi-smoked sausages with and without cedar oil cake.
Table 2 shows the fatty acid composition.
The fatty acid composition in the control
formulation had the following ratio of fatty acids:
USFA:MUFA:PUFA – 40.62%:44.01%:9.27%
When 15% of semi-fat pork was substituted by
cedar oil cake, it led to a significant decrease in the total
content of USFA, which was 19.8% relative to the control
formulation. MUFA and PUFA increased by 10.2% and
24.9%, respectively. SFA decreased in the following
manner: palmitic acid – by 21%, lauric acid – by 70%,
and arachinic acid – by 37%, if compared with the
control formulation. The experimental sample revealed
neither capric nor genicosanoic USFA.
The experiment revealed a significant increase
in MUFA, which has a beneficial effect on blood
lipoproteins and prevents coronary heart disease.
Therefore, an increase in MUFA means a higher
biological value of the semi-smoked sausages with cedar
oil cake [3]. The total increase in MUFA occurred after
the cis-oleic acid increased from 39.64% in the control
formulation to 44.33% in the experimental formulation.
Table 2 Fatty acid composition of semi-smoked sausages
Acid Notation Mass fraction,
% of total fatty acids
oil cake
with cedar
oil cake
Saturated fatty acids (SFA)
Capric С10:0 0.05 ± 0.001 –
Lauric С12:0 0.62 ± 0.040 0.18 ± 0.010
Myristine С14:0 1.73 ± 0.080 1.48 ± 0.020
Palmitic С16:0 25.5 ± 0.980 20.1 ± 1.290
Margarine С17:0 0.61 ± 0.040 0.53 ± 0.060
Stearin С18:0 11.68 ± 1.09 10.1 ± 0.830
Arachic С20:0 0.27 ± 0.030 0.17 ± 0.070
Geneukosan С21:0 0.16 ± –
Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)
Palmitoleic С16:1, ω-7 3.77 ± 0.040 3.11 ± 0.060
Heptadecene С17:1 0.33 ± 0.020 0.30 ± 0.010
Elaidic С18:1, ω-9, trans 0.10 ± 0.001 0.18 ± 0.003
Oleic С18:1, ω-9, cis 39.64 ± 0.73 44.33 ± 0.61
Gadolein С20:1 0.17 ± 0.003 0.61 ± 0.050
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)
Linoleic С18:2, ω-6 7.96 ± 0.250 9.61 ± 0.540
Eicosapentaenoic С20:2 – 0.26 ± 0.005
α- Linolenic С18:2, ω-3 0.20 ± 0.030 –
γ- Linolenic С18:3, ω-6 – 0.85 ± 0.040
Arachidonic С20:5, ω-6 1.11 ± 0.030 0.86 ± 0.040
USFA, % – 40.62 ± 0.56 32.56 ± 1.11
MUFA, % – 44.01 ± 0.32 48.53 ± 0.64
PUFA, % – 9.27 ± 0.330 11.58 ± 0.59
USFA/ MUFA – 0.92 0.67
USFA/PUFA – 4.38 2.82
PUFA/USFA – 0.23 0.36
Atherogenicity index – 0.62 0.44
1.46 1.05
Gurinovich G.V. et al. Foods and Raw Materials, 2020, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 30–39
The tests also demonstrated a change in the ratio and
composition of PUFA. When 15% of semi-fat pork was
replaced with cedar oil cake, the content of linoleic acid
(omega-6) increased by 20.7%. In addition, long-chain
eicosapentaenoic (omega-3) and γ-linolenic (omega-6)
acids were registered in the product, the latter being the
precursor of dihomo-γ-linolenic, or eicosatrienoic, acid.
The fatty acid composition of sausages with cedar oil
cake demonstrated a bigger total amount of long chain
UFA. These fatty acids have a lower melting point
compared to SFA of a similar chain length.
The comparison of the indices of atherogenicity
and thrombogenicity was in favor of the experimental
formulation, which makes the final product antiatherosclerotic.
The sausage formulation did not fully correspond
with the modern concept of balanced nutrition in terms
of SFA:MFA:PUFA ratio (30:60:10) [43]. However, a
greater amount of essential PUFA and a decrease in SFA
is one of the main arguments in favor of using cedar oil
cake as the main raw material.
Similar results were obtained by replacing beef
fat with walnuts, walnut pasta, and hazelnuts [44, 45].
These studies also showed that a decrease in SFA
improved the fatty acid composition of meat products.
Table 3 demonstrates the amino acid composition of
the sausages under study.
Therefore, cedar oil cake makes it possible to
obtain a product of high biological value. The scores
for essential amino acids were high: lysine – 139.6%,
tryptophan – 141.0%, and sulfur-containing amino acids
– 98.3%. The total content of essential amino acids
in the sausage with cedar oil cake was 38.91 g/100 g
protein. This amount was lower than in the product
with only meat raw materials, which was 42.3 g/100 g
protein. However, it was higher than in ideal protein
(36 g/100 g protein). Leucine appeared the first limiting
amino acid in the experimental sample: its score
was 94.8%.
In addition, the biological value of the new semismoked
sausages proved that cedar oil cake improved
the amino acid ratio (Table 4). As a result, the utility
coefficient of amino acid composition increased, and the
proportion of amino acids not used for anabolic purposes
decreased. In terms of the content of potentially
utilizable essential amino acids, the amount of protein in
the product was equivalent to their amount in 100 g of
reference protein.
The obtained data showed that cedar oil cake can
be recommended for semi-smoked sausage production.
The analysis of fatty acid and amino acid composition
proved that such replacement increased the biological
value of the final product. A comprehensive assessment
of the quality of the semi-smoked sausages was based on
sensory and physicochemical parameters (Table 5 and 6).
The nine-point panel evaluation of the semi-smoked
sausages involved such parameters as appearance, inner
color, smell, taste, and texture. Each of nine panelists
evaluated randomly encoded samples of sausages in
triplicate. The score of each sensory property was
calculated based on the opinion (evaluation) of each
panelist (Table 5).
The obtained data proved that cedar oil cake and a
lower amount of sodium chloride had a positive effect
on the smell and taste of the semi-smoked sausage.
The panelists noted that the usual meaty smell was
accompanied with a faint smell of cedar nuts. In
general, they evaluated the taste as milder and pointed
out a specific pleasant aftertaste, which made them
give the sample a higher score. The new curing mix
decreased the salty flavor. The fine structure of the
oil cake resulted in its better distribution in the meat,
Table 3 Content of essential amino acids in semi-smoked sausages
Essential amino acids Ideal protein,
without cedar oil cake (control) with cedar oil cake (experimental)
Protein, g/100 g Amino-acid score, % Protein, g/100 g Amino-acid score, %
Valine 5.0 5.78 115.60 5.37 107.40
Isoleucine 4.0 4.48 112.00 4.38 109.50
Leucine 7.0 6.88 98.20 6.64 94.80
Lysine 5.5 8.05 146.30 7.68 139.60
Methionine + Cysteine 3.5 3.89 111.40 3.44 98.30
Threonine 4.0 4.48 112.00 4.19 104.70
Tryptophan 1.0 1.18 118.00 1.41 141.00
Phenylalanine+ Tyrosine 6.0 7.56 126.00 5.80 96.60
Table 4 Biological value of protein in semi-smoked sausages
Indicatiors Samples
without cedar oil
cake (control)
with cedar oil cake
Total essential amino
acid, g/100 g protein
42.30 38.91
Utility coefficient,
unit fraction
0.83 0.87
redundancy coefficient,
g/100 g protein
7.20 5.35
Gurinovich G.V. et al. Foods and Raw Materials, 2020, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 30–39
thus preserving the texture of the sausage even when
the percentage of cedar oil cake was relatively high.
The panelists described the texture as dense. A slight
decrease in the inner color intensity did not affect the
score for this indicator. The total score for sausages
with cedar oil cake was 8.2 points, which corresponded
with “excellent” on the nine-point scale. The sausages
made without cedar oil cake received 6.9 points and
were evaluated as “good”. According to the results
of the sensory evaluation, the semi-smoked sausages
with cedar oil cake and low salt content received high
consumer characteristics.
The obtained results were consistent with other
studies. For instance, almond and walnut had a
positive effect on the sensory properties of various
meat products, e.g. chopped semi-finished products
and emulsified sausages. However, if the percentage of
the new component exceeded 25%, the final product
acquired a specific taste, while the structure became
heterogeneous, especially in case of coarse-ground
nuts [46–49].
Table 6 shows the physicochemical parameters of
the sausages. The nutritional values of both samples
conformed to the requirements of regulatory documents
for this group of products. The analysis revealed no
significant differences in the chemical composition of
the samples. However, the sausage with cedar oil cake
had a higher mass fraction of protein and fat than the
control sample.
The partial replacement of sodium chloride with
magnesium chloride led to a decrease in the sodium. The
daily reference intake for sodium is 2 g per day for an
adult. In the control sample of the semi-smoked sausage,
the sodium content was 1.13%, which corresponds to
56.5% of the daily reference intake. In the experimental
product, it was 0.76%, or 38% of the daily requirement.
The obtained experimental data confirmed the high
nutritional value of the developed formulation.
Ground meat used in semi-smoked sausages is a
complex system with a high content of pro-oxidants,
which contributes to the formation of free radicals.
Free radicals, in their turn, are most active against
MUFA and PUFA, the amount of which increased
in the formulation with cedar oil cake. However,
cedar oil cake contains natural antioxidants that can
inactivate free radicals. Tocopherol is one of the most
significant antioxidants. According to our previous
study, its content in cedar meal is 11.43 mg/100 g [36].
The smaller amount of sodium chloride is one more
protective mechanism in the developed formulation. The
effect of competing factors on the lipid oxidation process
of the combined fat phase requires further research when
it goes about semi-smoked sausages.
The amount of primary and secondary oxidation
products was determined on days 1 and 15 of
refrigerated storage at 2–6°С and 70–80% of relative
humidity. The hydrolysis of fat facilitates the
development of oxidation processes. As a result,
assessment of acid value had to be performed simultaneously
(Table 7).
The hydrolysis process in both samples revealed a
similar development pattern. After the expiry date, the
acid value increased by 2.3 times in the control sample
and by 2.2 times in the experimental sample. In both
cases, the acid value was significantly lower than the
standard. In addition, the intensity of the hydrolysis
process decreased in the experimental sample.
The oxidative changes in the combined lipid
fraction of the experimental formulation vs. the control
formulation were determined according to accumulation
of primary oxidation products. By the end of storage, the
peroxide value increased by 28.3% in the experimental
Table 5 Sensory evaluation of semi-smoked sausages
Samples Appearance Inner color Smell Taste Texture Total
Without cedar oil cake (control) 7.4 ± 0.3 7.4 ± 0.1 6.5 ± 0.3 6.3 ± 0.5 7.2 ± 0.2 6.9 ± 0.7
With cedar oil cake (experiment) 7.9 ± 0.6 8.0 ± 0.5 8.8 ± 0.2 8.5 ± 0.6 7.8 ± 0.1 8.2 ± 0.2
Table 6 Physicochemical characteristics the semi-smoked
Indicator Samples
without cedar
oil cake
with cedar
oil cake
Mass fraction of protein, % 16.2 ± 0.37 17.4 ± 0.34
Mass fraction of fat, % 23.4 ± 0.29 25.2 ± 0.27
Mass fraction of moisture, % 56.8 ± 0.24 52.2 ± 0.21
Mass fraction of chlorides, % 2.8 ± 0.05 2.8 ± 0.08
Mass fraction of sodium, % 1.13 ± 0.07 0.76 ± 0.04
Energy value, kcal 248 284
Table 7 Indicators of oxidative damage in semi-smoked sausages
Samples Storage time, days Acid value, mg КОН Peroxide value, mmol½ О/kg Thiobarbital value, mgМА/kg
Without cedar oil cake
0 0.75 ± 0.063 2.36 ± 0.130 0.250 ± 0.009
15 1.73а ± 0.046 3.4a ± 0.350 0.298a ± 0.007
With cedar oil cake
0 0.68 ± 0.036 2.29 ± 0.110 0.246 ± 0.006
15 1.54ab ± 0.024 2.94ab ± 0.120 0.282ab ± 0.008
The a–b values in the columns differed significantly (P < 0.05)
Gurinovich G.V. et al. Foods and Raw Materials, 2020, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 30–39
sample and by 44.0% in the control sample. Therefore,
cedar oilcake and low sodium chloride content slowed
it down without reversing it. The results must have been
caused by the effect of cedar tocopherols, which are
most active against radicals attacking double bonds of
USFA. Lipid peroxidation is triggered by the removal
of a hydrogen atom from a free PUFA or an acid within
phospholipids. When heme iron becomes non-heme,
reactions start branching, and the process is reinitiated.
Stabilization of heme-containing meat proteins is caused
by a decrease in sodium chloride, which inhibits the
oxidation process [50].
However, in spite of the fact that the samples differed
significantly in peroxide values, the obtained results do
not guarantee that the lipid oxidation rate reduced in
the formulations with cedar oil cake and low sodium
content. Peroxides and hydroperoxides are unstable
intermediate reaction products, which quickly turn into
the products of secondary oxidation. Hence, peroxide
value is a variable value and does not fully reflect the
degree of oxidative changes [51].
Thiobarbital value is a more objective indicator of
oxidative spoilage. It describes the amount of malonic
aldehyde that is formed during storage. The process
of accumulation of secondary oxidation products was
less intensive in the sausages with cedar oil cake and
lower salt content over the entire storage period. The
thiobarbital value increased by 19.2% in the control
sample without cedar oil cake and by 14.6% in the
experimental sample with cedar oil cake. This increase
could be associated with more intense hydrolytic
processes and lipid peroxidation during storage, as well
as with aerobic storage conditions [52].
The obtained results indicated the stabilization of the
lipid fraction of the semi-smoked sausages with cedar oil
cake and low sodium content, since no extraneous rancid
taste and aroma were registered.
Water activity is one of the product stability
parameters. Water activity values for the semi-smoked
sausages under study during storage are presented in
Table 8.
The decrease in the water activity in the experimental
sample compared with control could be explained by
lower moisture content. In addition, magnesium chloride
has a more pronounced effect on the moisture retention in
the product, as described in [53, 54].
The research showed that 15% of cedar oil cake
introduced into the traditional formulation of semismoked
sausages to substitute 15% of pork increased
the biological value of the product. Its fatty acid
composition improved due to a decrease in saturated
fatty acids, including palmitic acid. The mono- and
polyunsaturated fatty acids increased, including longchain
eicosapentaenoic and γ-linolenic acids. The
parameters of hydrolytic and oxidative changes in the
combined fat phase demonstrated a greater stability
during storage. This improvement could be explained
by two facts. First, the composition of cedar oil cake
had natural antioxidants. Second, sodium chloride was
partially replaced with magnesium chloride (30%) in the
curing mix. This replacement also decreased the amount
of sodium in the composition of the final product.
According to the sensory evaluation, cedar oil cake
and lower content of sodium chloride had a positive
effect on the taste, smell, and texture of the sausage.
The new sausages contribute to a healthy diet while their
prospective production can be of practical use to meat
G.V. Gurinovich supervised the project. All the
authors took part in research, data processing, writing,
and updating the article: I.S. Patrakova, S.A. Seregin,
A.G. Gargaeva, O.Ya. Alekseevnina, O.M. Myshalova,
M.V. Patshina.
The authors declare that there is no conflict
of interest related to the publication of this article.


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