In the paper, the effect of the lipid complex in fats and oils on human organism and their role in physiology of nutrition are reviewed. Aspects of impairment of the nutritional status upon fat consumption, in particular, the excess consumption of saturated fats, trans-isomers of fatty acids, and cholesterol and the deficiency of polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids, are discussed. Data on oil and fat in modern structure of nutrition are described. Aspects of the development of balanced fat compositions, accounting for normal physiological needs of modern people for lipids and their structural components, are reviewed. Data on the construction of fatty bases from milk fat, natural, and modified vegetable oils and fats providing for predetermined consumer properties of functional fatty milk products are presented.
fat consumption, nutritional status, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, balanced fat compositions, development of fatty bases
Development of new technologies in food industry and creation of a wide range of qualitatively new products with controlled modification of the chemical composition and properties is an important direction of modern nutritiology aiding the improvement of nutrition and preservation of health of the population.
Purposeful modification of fatty acid composition of lipid fraction is one of the main conditions in design of balanced food product compositions to approach the optimal ratio between the saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
The concept of the development of an assortment of dairy products with increased content of milk fat identifies a number of directions, among which preferable are the directed regulation of fatty acid composition of the product by means of introduction of vegetable oils or compositions of non-milky fats, decrease of the calorific index due to the change of the ratio between fat and non-fat components for the benefit of the latter ones and allowance and feasibility of application of fatty bases improving agents, including the structure stabilizers, antioxidants, etc., for which the main principles of selection are oriented at the group of compounds of natural origin possessing maximal functionality.
The area of combining milk and plant raw materials seems promising for the development of qualitatively new dairy products of modified composition and properties. This methodology provides for a potential possibility of mutual enrichment of the products’ ingredients with one or several essential factors and allows for the development of balanced-composition products, including products developed for specific needs.
Therefore, optimization of the composition and properties for the development of products that meet the formula of balanced nutrition the most predetermines the directions of new technology advancement. Design of the composition of products and diets in adherence with the requirements on balance of fatty acid, amino acid, mineral, and vitamin composition is the subject of priority in scientific and applied research .
THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF A BALANCED LIPID COMPLEX OF FAT COMPOSITIONS
When characterizing the lipid component of milk fat, it should be noted that the question of modification of its fatty acid composition is a timely one. Special attention is paid to the development of new types of fat products using fatty compositions of milk fat with vegetable oils and fats.
Earlier studies on the increase of food and biological value of milk fat provided ground for the development of a new group of products, that is, spreads with modified fat phase, including milk fat and compositions of non-milk fats. Selection of the components of fat phase should be performed according to scientific principles, which are based on the requirement of preservation of the nutritive value of milk products and their organoleptic parameters with possible correction of the negative properties of milk fat. Rational combining of several sources of lipids is important from the economical point of view since it allows the producers to minimize the costs spent on raw materials and decrease the dependence of the production on seasonal fluctuations of milk input.
The need for a comprehensive evaluation of nutritive value of fats is connected with the fact that they hold an important place in human diet. Considerable amount of research is dedicated to the investigation of the multifaceted role of lipids in vital processes .
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