Nutrition is one of the primary factors of achievements in sports and sportsmen’s health, on par with methodological and psychological aspects of training. A special place in sports nutrition is occupied by biologically active additives (BAA) made with plant and animal raw materials, amino acids, ferments, other irreplaceable nutrients and minor food constituents – energy, fat, protein and mineral exchange correctors, considering their efficiency and availability. Biologically active substances of the food components are also able to stimulate compensatory-adaptive reactions, prevent trauma and numerous diseases in professional sports, protect from common cold and other viral diseases before and during competitions. Great attention is paid to the scientific approbation of BAA formulae, with considera-tion of age, gender, sport type and synergic effect of separate components on metabolic processes in human organism. New types of BAA’s for sports nutrition have been developed. The formulae have been created on the basis of data from literature and research on characteristics of active ingredients and their influence on the metabolic processes dur-ing training, competitions and recreational activities. Organoleptic, physical and chemical, hygienic and toxicological customer properties have been examined. Regulated quality indices (including nutritional value), which establish func-tional goals, have been determined. Considering the directions of BAA testing, the characteristic of several sport types has been given. The distinctive features of nutritional support have been investigated. The efficiency of specialized products has been determined by their inclusion into the diet and observation of specific properties, which characterize metabolic processes in sportsmen’s organisms. The developed products have passed anti-doping control. They have been included into the Federal register and approved in the practice of sport competitions.
Sports nutrition, principles of creation, specialized products, efficiency assessment
Modern sports and training of sportsmen of higher qualification are characterized by the availability of two factors:
(1) physical and psychological stress, which gener-ally reaches the limits of physiological functions;
(2) the necessity of applying different approaches to achieve the final result.
The latter is associated with an increase in general and special performance of athletes during training and competitions, the recovery of the organism after overstress, prevention of possible complications and adaptation breakdowns.
One of the primary solutions of the presented prob-lem is the development of scientifically approbated diets with consideration of type of sport, age, gender, and other basic factors. There is a need for new types of specialized products (including BAA), based on the achievements of modern pharmacology and nutrition sciences, which aim at the increase of sports achieve-ments, prevention of professional disease and preservation of health [1-3, 9].
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The materials of research have been constituent components and created on their basis experimental and production samples of BAA’s – “Vasoton”, “Aro-vitol’, “Vitalife”, “Discovery”, “Yohimbe Plus” com-plex, as well as representative groups of athletes.
Conventional assessment methods of organoleptic and physical and chemical quality indices have been used. Vitamin value tests have been performed with the use of spectrophotometry, high-efficiency liquid chromatography and fluorometry . The criteria of safety have been estimated according to the requirements of technical regulations .
To evaluate the effectiveness of the developed products well-known and special clinical research me-thods have been used. They characterize the BAA quality and the condition of metabolic processes of athletes.
The effectiveness evaluation of BAA “Discovery” and complex “Yohimbe Plus” was performed on a group of highly qualified swimmers (18 men, age 18,7±1,7 years, height 1,86±0,08 m, weight 74,6±5,7 kg, experience 10,8±1,7 years). Out of them 10 men were in the experimental group, and 8 were in the con-trol group. The following parameters were investigated: level of performance using the electronic diagnostic complex “ART-2”, external respiration analysis systems “BECKMEN” and “CORTEX”, cardio-monitoring system POLAR ELECTRO “ACCUREX PLUS”. The sportsmen performed rowing motions in several tests: 10 rows with maximal intensity (T-10), 1 minute with “competition” intensity (T-1) and multi-stage test – 10 tests 1 minute each with growing inten-sity. In these tests power measurements, heartbeat rate, oxygen consumption rate, lung ventilation were ob-served.
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