A paradigm of scientific perspective on one of the main components of raw milk - lactose (milk sugar) in terms of emerging views about milk science - LACTOOMICS with the logistic term GLYCOOMICS as a separate section on lactose and its derivatives is stated. The role of lactose and its derivatives in the biocenosis of living cultures is shown. The contribution of Nobel Prize winners in the development of the issues related to lactose as the “life sugar” is estimated. Optimized molecular lactose anomer structures and calculations of electrostatic potential are presented. The possibility of lactose derivatives synthesis with the use of molecular-kinetic patterns and neural network simulation is proved. These provisions allow us to establish a system of scientific views on one of the main components of raw milk at the level of post-genomic representations.
Lactoomics, glycoomics, lactose (milk sugar), lactose derivatives, lactulose, molecular structures, neural network simulation
On the assumptions of the declared LACTOOMICS postulates as the science of MILK  and the principles of dairy logistics  it seems appropriate to outline in a brief form some considerations in terms of innovation and information technology relating to one of the major components of milk - lactose (milk sugar) – an ideal nanocluster of the "dwarf" size - 1 nanometer. If whey can be considered a "universal agricultural raw material" (by Academician N. Lipatov), lactose (more than 70% of dry matter) should be referred to as an idealized model for the food nanotechnology of "Living Cultures". In this case, it is clear, especially in recent time that alongside with lactose its derivatives should be considered as natural products of directed and controlled modification. In summary, it seems quite logical to have an independent scientific section of LACTOOMICS - GLYCOOMICS designated by the article title. Certainly, along with GLYCOOMICS, it seems logical to establish LIPIDOMICS (milk fat) and PROTEOMICS (milk proteins - casein and whey).
OBJECT AND METHODS OF STUDY
The term GLYCOOMICS was formed on the basis of the published materials [3, 4] to the depth of more than 400 years (from the time of Fabrizio Bertholleti) and systematized in the collections of the Symposium of the International Dairy Federation (Russia, Moscow, May, 2007). They are also found in specialized monographs [5, 6] and the materials of the fifth (Paris, 2008), and the sixth (USA, 2011) International Conferences, devoted entirely to the primary lactose (milk) raw material – whey. Conference proceedings are published and in a systematic form (English and Russian versions) are available from the author.
From a genetic point of view, according to the theory of adequate nutrition and trophic ecology, lactose should be considered as LIFE SUGAR - naturally given component of the secretion (milk) of mammals and humans. It, like all carbohydrates, stands at the beginning and the end of the renewable energy and entropy flows passing through the biosphere.
It should be noted that lactose and its derivatives were in one way or another the object (subject) of the studies of prominent scientists honored with the highest award of the Earth civilization - Nobel Prize. As an exclusive example given below is a list of Nobel Prize winners (by year of awarding), whose works, in our opinion, are more or less relevant to the objects of the MMF Symposium.
E. Fischer (1902) studied carbohydrates, including lactose. He owns a brilliant solution to the problem of the synthesis of natural sugars and other compounds.
I. Pavlov (1904), studying the function of the di-gestive glands, found that the most useful and easily digestible for the body of mammals are the components of dairy products. Pavlov believed milk and its components to be amazing food prepared by nature due to all these advantages.
I. Mechnikov together with P. Ehrlich (1908) investigated the questions of immunity and health. In his book "Sketches of optimism" ("Life Extension"), I. Mechnikov examines the lactotherapy phenomenon as prevention of diseases and life extension, thanks to eating dairy products containing lactose and lactics.
A. Fleming, E. Chain, H. Flory (1945) who dis-covered penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases, considered lactose to be a major component of nutrient medium used for the synthesis of antibiotics.
L. Pauling (1954) investigated the nature of chemical bond and its application to determine the structure of compounds. He is widely known for his work on orthomolecular medicine, elimination of lactose intolerance, as well as the development of the concept of dietary supplements.
F. Jacob, J. Monod, A. Lvov (1965) developed the theory of genetic control of enzyme synthesis on the example of the lactose operon (lac-operon) of Escherichia coli bacterium.
It is quite possible that the day when the next Nobel Prize will be awarded for the research related to this unique LIFE SUGAR is not far off then.
1. Khramtsov, A.G., Laktoomika – nauka o moloke. Modernizacija nashih predstavlenij (Lactoomics - science about milk. Upgrading of our notions), Molochnaja promyshlennost´ (Dairy industry), 2011, no. 6, pp. 45-48.
2. Khramtsov, A.G., Logistika molochnogo dela. Prognosticheskij vzglyad (Logistics of dairy systems. The way forward), Pererabotka moloka (Milk Processing), 2011, no. 6, pp. 48-50.
3. Tezisy Mezhdunarodnogo simpoziuma MMF «Laktoza i ee proizvodnye» (Moskva, 14-16 maja 2007) i regional´noj konferencii MMF «Kislomolochnye produkty – tehnologii i pitanie» (Moskva, 17 maja 2007) (Proceedings of the International MMF Symposium "Lactose and its derivatives" (Moscow, 14-16 May, 2007) and the MMF Regional Conference "Dairy products - technology and power" (Moscow, May 17, 2007)). Moscow, ERDC "Educational Research and Development Center of the dairy industry", 2007. 402 p.
4. International Dairy Federation Symposium “Lactose and its derivatives”, Moscow, 14-16 may 2007. 128 p.
5. Sinel´nikov, B.M., Khramtsov, A.G., Evdokimov, I.A., Rjabceva, S.A., and Serov, A.V., Laktoza i ee proizvodnye (Lactose and its derivatives), St. Petersburg: “Professija” Publ., 2007. 770 p.
6. Khramtsov, A.G., Fenomen molochnoy syvorotki (Whey phenomenon), St. Petersburg: “Professija” Publ., 2011. 804 p.
7. Bochkov, A.F., Bochkov, A.F., Afanas´ev, V.A., and Zajkov, G.E., Uglevody (Carbohydrates). Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1980. 176 p.
8. Pokrovskij, A. A., Rol´ molochnyh produktov v pitanii naselenija (The role of dairy products in people’s nutrition), Molochnaja promyshlennost´ (Dairy Industry), 1969, no. 9, pp.12-14.
9. Shleyp Tilo, Ostorozhno – laktoza! Kogda molochnyi sakhar ne sovmestim so zdorov´em (Caution - lactose! When lactose is not compatible with health), St. Petersburg: IG “Ves” Publ., 2004. 96 p.
10. Shuvaev, V.A., and Kunizhev, S.M., Novye tehnologii v proizvodstve molochnyh produktov (New technologies in dairy production), Moscow: DeLee print, 2004. 203 p.
11. Begg, D., Innovacionnye tehnologii ili sohranenie vekovyh tradicij. Kto pobedit? (Innovative technologies or preservation of centuries-old traditions. Who will win?), Molochnaja promyshlennost´ (Dairy Industry), 2006, no. 4, pp.42-46.
12. Zajkovskij, Ja.S., Himija i fizika moloka i molochnyh produktov (Chemistry and physics of milk and dairy products), Мoscow: Pishhepromizdat, 1950, 280 p.
13. Kovalenko, M.S., Nauchno-tehnicheskie osnovy tehnologicheskih processov poluchenija α i β-form molochnogo sahara iz syvorotki. Аvtoref. diss. dokt. tekhn. nauk (Scientific and technical basis of technological processes of α and β-forms of lactose from whey. Dr. tech. sci. autoabstract diss.). Leningrad, 1954. 52 p.
14. Modler, H.W., Berlouez, I., Holland, S., et al., Oligosaccharides and probiotic bacteria, Bull. of the IDF, 1996, no. 313, p. 58.
15. Rjabceva, S.A., Tehnologija laktulozy (Lactulose Technology), Moscow: DeLee print, 2003. 232 p.