Аннотация и ключевые слова
Аннотация (русский):
The present article considers the increasing popularity of beverages containing ethyl alcohol and fermentation products with the population of Russia. Statistical data show that alcoholic beverages with ethanol concentration exceeding 40 vol. % account for the largest share of the market. The development of a procedure for the production of alcohol oxidase from the yeast Candida boidinii is reported; the enzyme is intended for use in the manufacturing of functional foods for withdrawal syndrome alleviation. A procedure for the disruption of cell walls of the yeast Candida boidinii in a planetary ball mill PM 400 and methods for the removal of ballast substances reducing the catalytic efficiency and the specific activity of the enzyme preparation are presented.

Ключевые слова:
withdrawal syndrome, foods, beverages, alcohol oxidase, catalase, technology, purification


The popularity of drinks containing ethanol and fermentation products with the population of Russia has been increasing recently. According to statistical data, alcoholic beverages with ethanol concentration above 40 vol. % account for the largest share of the market, while beer accounts for 25% only, and the share of sparkling wine and wine-based beverages is even lower. However, a trend towards a decrease in the popularity of vodka, whiskey, and cognac is evident, and the demand for low-alcohol beverages, such as beer, cocktails, and effervescent beverages, is growing rapidly [1, 2].

Increased alcohol consumption has an obvious negative impact going beyond the deterioration of physical and psychological health. Heavy alcohol use affects the welfare and health of people in the immediate environment of the drinker and has a negative impact on the society as a whole.

The state policy concerning alcohol production and consumption has always been a major factor affecting the consumption of alcohol by the population of Russia. All the documented increases in alcohol consumption and changes of consumption patterns towards increased use of strong beverages were related to actions of the state. Attempts to reduce regulation and relegate responsibility for alcohol production and consumption or increase profits from these processes have always led to increases in alcohol consumption and the share of strong beverages [3].

Alcoholic beverages are known to mankind since ancient times: wine was consumed in ancient Egypt   (7-3 centuries BC), and both wine and beer were common in medieval Russia. Rye (vodka produced from grain) appeared in Russia in the mid-15th century, and illegal distillation of alcohol was widespread by the 1800s already. Statistical data show that the level of alcohol consumption in Russia is among the highest in the world. The annual consumption of ethyl alcohol per capita was 9.3 liters in 1992, while in the early 21st century it reached 15-18 l, a value significantly higher than those for the European countries.

Ethanol is used during medical procedures to sanitize the skin and sterilize surgical and medical instruments, because it induces denaturation of cytoplasmic proteins of various pathogens. The chemical structure and pharmacological properties of ethyl alcohol allow for classifying it as a central nervous system depressant. A general depression of physiological and emotional processes (withdrawal syndrome or hangover) is a consequence of alcohol consumption. The main symptoms of withdrawal syndrome are high blood pressure, chills, headache, hand tremors, loss of appetite, dry mouth, and depression. Withdrawal syndrome usually develops within a few hours after consumption of alcoholic beverages and lasts up to 2–3 days. An adverse consequence of withdrawal syndrome is repeated consumption of alcohol, which provides for a certain relief, but ultimately leads to poisoning of the organism and development of alcohol dependence [4].

Ingested ethanol is rapidly absorbed by diffusion in the stomach; the maximum concentration of alcohol in the blood is attained after 60–90 min. Notably, the rate of absorption varies and is affected by a multitude of different factors. The liver is the main site of ethanol metabolism, but the stomach epithelium can contribute to this process as well. Ethanol is dehydrogenated by alcohol dehydrogenase to form ethanal (acetaldehyde), which is subsequently converted to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase [5]. Oxygenase, peroxidase, catalase, and alcohol oxidase also play an important role in the metabolism of ethanol in a living organism. According to Rumyantsev et al. (1981), consumption of ethanol results in increased concentration of acetaldehyde, which disturbs the functioning of a number of metabo-lic systems [6].

Список литературы

1. Report on alcohol and health 2010. World Health Organization. URL: pdf_file/0004/128065/e94533.pdf

2. Sotsial´noe polozhenie i uroven´ zhizni naseleniya Rossii: Stat. Sb. (Social Situation and Living Standards of the Popualtion of Russia: Stat. Comp.) (Rosstat, Moscow, 1997–2010).

3. Krevyakina, E.V., Medvedev: «V bednoy strane p´yanstvo ne pobedit´» (Medvedev: “A poor country cannot defeat alcoholism”), Komsomol’skaya Pravda, August 09, 2009.

4. Pleteneva, T. V., Toksikologicheskaya khimiya (Toxicological Chemistry) (GEOTAR Media, Moscow, 2005).

5. Pavlishko, H., Gayda, H., and Gonchar, M., Alcohol oxidase and its bioanalytical application, Vysnyk of L´viv Univ. Biology series, 2004. № 35. P. 3.

6. Rumyantsev, A.P., Tiunov, L.V., and Ostroumova, I.A., Metabolizm organicheskikh soedinenii opiinogo ryada (Metabolism of a range of organic opioid compounds), Itogi nauki i tekhniki (Achievements in Science and Technology) (VINITI, Moscow, 1981). V. 12. P. 65.

7. Gonchar, M., Metabolically engineered methylotrophic yeast cells and enzymes as sensor biorecognition elements, FEMS Yeast Research, 2002. V. 2. P. 307.

8. Ashin, V.V. and Trotsenko, Yu.A., Alcohol oxidase of the methylotrophic yeasts: new findings, J. Mol. Catal. B: Enzym., 2000. V. 10. № 1-3. P. 295.

9. Yeast Biotechnology: Diversity and Applications, ed. by Satyanarayana, T. and Kunze, G. (2009).

10. Prosekov, A.Yu, Babich, O.O., and Sukhikh, S.A., Sovremennye metody issledovaniya syr´ya i biotekhnologicheskoi produktsii: Laboratornyi praktikum (Modern Methods of Analysis of Raw Materials and Biotechnology Products: A Laboratory Guide) (Kemerovo Technological Institute of Food Industry, Kemerovo, 2012).

11. Shugalei, I.V., Garabadzhiu, A.V., and Tselinskii, I.V., Khimiya belka: uchebnoe posobie (Study Materials in Protein Chemistry) (Prospekt Nauki, St. Petersburg, 2011).

12. Scopes R, Metody ochistki belkov (Protein Purification Techniques), Moscow, Mir, 1985.

13. Osterman, L.A., Khromatografiya belkov i nukleinovykh kislot (Chromatography of Proteins and Nucleic Acids) (Nauka, Moscow, 1985).

14. Bystrykh, L.V., Dvorokova, J., and Volfova, O. Alcohol oxidase of methylotrophic thermo- and acidotolerant yeast Hansenula sp., Folia Microbol., 1989. V. 34. № 1. P. 233.

15. Plakunov, V.K. Osnovy enzimologii (Fundamentals of Enzymology) (Logos, Moscow, 2001).

16. Mizgunova, U.M., Shekhovtsova, T.N., and Dolmanova, I.F., Fermentnye metody opredeleniya alifaticheskikh spirtov (Enzymatic methods for the determination of aliphatic alcohols), J. Anal. Chem. (Moscow), 1998. V. 53. № 10. P. 1014.

17. Azevedo, A.M., Prazeres, D.M., Cabral, J.M., and Fonseca, L.P. Ethanol biosensors based on alcohol oxidase, Biosens Bioelectron., 2006. V. 21. № 12. P. 2306.

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