This paper reviews the data on the development of the technologies of sour-milk beverages with the use of wild-growing raw materials. The general principles of the creation of preventive sour-milk beverages and the principal requirements to wild-growing raw materials used to enrich their composition are formulated. Tavolga syrup based on herbs, such as megasea (Bergénia crassifólia), meadowsweet (Filipéndula ulmária), and peppermint (Méntha piperíta), and also whey extract and syrup based on balm (Melissa officinalis) are used in the work. The main regularities of the formation of organoleptic, physicochemical, mechanostructural, and probiotic properties of the sour-milk products with the use of aqueous and whey extracts and syrups based on wild-growing raw materials are shown. The prospects and possibility of the application of curd whey, which extracts nutrients from plant raw material, in the production of enriched sour-milk products is demonstrated. The content of milk whey in a sour-milk product is from 5 to 30%. The use of Tavolga syrup excludes the addition of colorants, flavors, and stabilizers, reduces the energy expenditures due to a decrease in the baking time, inhibits the accumulation of lactic acid by starter cultures, and also suppresses the growth of opportunistic microflora during the storage of sour-milk beverages. The technologies of Tavolga phyto-fermented baked milk and phytoyoghurt and Melissa and Lesnoi kefir beverages are described, and the nutritional value of the new sour-milk beverages is shown, including their vitamin composition. The developed technologies of the listed sour-milk beverages are competitive, as confirmed by their relevance, scientific validity, and engineering, social, and economic profitability.
sour-milk beverages, phytoyoghurt, phyto-fermented baked milk, kefir beverage, wild-growing raw materials, megasea, meadowsweet, peppermint, balm, aqueous and whey extracts and syrups of wild-growing raw materials
The food consumption pattern and nutritional status of population are among the most important development indicators of a country. The importance of the nutritional status as a national health forming factor is confirmed by the adoption of the Food Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation, which classifies some real food consumption indicators as food security estimation criteria. One of the main ways to solve this problem is to provide dairy self-sufficiency .
In recent years, the food consumption pattern of population, including the population of Russia, is observed to be unbalanced by proteins, fats, and carbohydrates and deficient in complete proteins and polyunsaturated fatty acids at excess fats and carbohydrates. The nutrition ration of most peoples is observed to be deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6), soluble and insoluble dietary fibers, vitamins (group B, E, etc.), a wide spectrum of vitamin-like natural substances, macronutirents, and micronutrients.
Relying on the principles of evidence-based medicine, absolutely new data on the biological role of so-called minor bioactive substances for a human were obtained. This first of all concerns such bioactive substances as [2, 3]:
- Different groups of flavanoids (flavanols and their glycosides (quercetin, campherol, rutin, etc.), flavons (luteolin, apigenin, etc.), flavonons (naringenin, hesperidin, etc.), dihydroflavanols, proanthocyanidin, catechins, etc.), the physiological functions of which are very multifarious and important for decreasing the risk of many currently widespread diseases ;
- Indoles, one of the most important function of which is the regulation of the activity of first- and second-phase xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and the protective role with respect to some cancer pathology forms;
- Organic acids (succinic, malic, hydroxycitric, and other acids); and
- Phenols (hydroquinone, arbutin, hydroxycinnamic acids, etc.), which have a specific biological effect on the various functions of individual metabolic systems and an organism as a whole.
Among the bioactive substances of plant raw materials with a regulative effect on many body functions are phytositosterols, isoflavons, isothiocyonates, glucomannans, polyfructans, inulin, chlorophyll, caffeine, and many others.
The data accumulated in the field of nutrition science indicate that the need of an organism for all the nutrition and minor bioactive substances required for its survival can not adequately be satisfied via traditional nutrition under contemporary human life conditions. A considerable increase in the consumption of traditional food with the purpose of elevating the amount of micronutrients in it will lead to an equally abrupt increase in the consumption of fats and carbohydrates and, consequently, to obesity and associated diseases. The problem of nutrition unbalance with respect to micronutrients can be solved via the targeted enrichment of food products by health-beneficial ingredients.
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