Recipes of multicomponent mixtures of cereals with proteins of high biological value were developed. In experiments, 35 adult male Wistar rats were used. Prior to the experiment, all animals were fed with powdered milk, grain or grain waste, germinated oats, and comprehensive multivitamin preparations, in addition to the standard balanced diet. Against this background, blood was collected from the animals for biochemical studies (control group, n = 20). Blood collection from tail vein was performed under general anesthesia, according to the recommendations of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Working Group. Animals were fed with viscous-texture porridge made from ternary mixtures (rice, peas, and buckwheat; rice, barley, and maize) and the five-component cereals (rice, barley, maize, buckwheat, and peas) for 30 days. The control group received a standard vivarium diet. Postprandial glycemic curves in all groups were compared with the response to administration of glucose in the amount corresponding to the diet carbohydrates content. Postprandial glycemia was significantly lower in all groups of animals receiving the experimental diets than in the group of animals who received aqueous solution of glucose directly in the stomach by gavage at the rate of 0.03 g/g total weight (glucose tolerance test, GTT). Baudouin hyperglycemic factor was 1.52 for the control group, and in the range of 1.07–1.10, for the experimental groups. The glycemic index was 76.2 and 53.6–55.9, respectively. The results evidence that the products prepared from multicomponent mixtures of cereals belong to the products with low glycemic index
multicomponent mixtures of cereals, postprandial glycemia, glycemic index
Excess influx of carbohydrates with food, especially against the background of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, or metabolic syndrome, leads to progression of the phenomena . However, not only the amount of carbohydrates, but also their qualitative composition influences the rate of absorption and, finally, glucose level in blood . Simple food carbohydrates are known to be rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract increasing glucose concentration in blood . After sharp increase in secretion and synthesis of insulin, glucose is eliminated by liver and muscle tissue and transformed to glycogen; then, glucose concentration in blood decreases and hunger develops . Complex polysaccharides, resistant starch, and food fibers slow down glucose absorption; their absence or partial lack from the diet leads to small volume of food and consequently need for new meal, i. e. overnutrition [6, 7]. The term glycemic index was introduced as a function of the rate of carbohydrate absorption; this provided for the possibility for patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus or other metabolic disorders, as well as healthy population, to correct diet, choosing products that do not induce high glycemia levels.
Under normal conditions, glucose is the major energy substrate for most tissues in the human and animal organisms. Its concentration in blood is an integral index, which is determined by the rate of glycogen formation from non-carbohydrate precursors, influx of carbohydrates with food, absorption in intestines, utilization by tissues, and excretion. Carbohydrate homeostasis may be referred to one of the perfect and most complexly regulated ones, controlled by both nervous and humoral effects. As a rule, concentration of glucose in blood of laboratory rats varies from 4.5 to 6.4 mmol/L and remains within this range even upon prolonged starvation. An important role in the maintenance of the constant glucose level in blood belongs to metabolic pathways through which glycogen, mainly deposited in liver and muscles, is synthesized and broken down. Hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate, generated in liver from glycogen, is well known to serve a constant source of glucose. Metabolic pathways of its utilization in organism are described in details in a number of works [8, 9]. Glucose oxidation in a cascade of anaerobic glycolysis reactions is practically the only source of energy for such tissues as nervous tissue, renal medulla, seminal glands, and erythrocytes [8, 9], while other tissues possess the ability to use both glucose and fatty acids, ketone bodies, and other products of oxidative metabolism as energy substrates.
Cereal porridges may be considered as a complex of polysaccharides (or “slow carbohydrates”), proteins, monosaccharides, food fibers, and relatively small amount of fat. In the process of hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal tract they are cleaved to accessible forms of metabolic substrates that are transported to tissues and organs by blood. The faster the product is cleaved to simple carbohydrates, the higher is its glycemic index. Glucose with a glycemic index of 100 is considered an etalon. Due to the abundance of diabetes type I and II and a number of other metabolic disorders, functional products decreasing the burden of pancreas are required. Usually dietary actions include complete or partial disallowance of food with high glycemic index. We assume that use of cereal mixtures components of which are rich with amylose (legumes) or viscous food fibers (peeled and pearl barley, oatmeal—sources of β-glucans) may considerably widen the assortment of dishes and thus improve the quality of life of diabetes and metabolic syndrome patients.
The aim of the work was to develop multicomponent cereal mixtures that would have low or intermediate glycemic index.