The article shows the dynamics of the output of baked goods over the past five years in Russia and in the Siberian Federal District. The main trends in the development of the baking branch of the food industry of Kemerovo oblast are specified. Factors that determine the dynamics of baked goods production in the Kuznetsk Basin are considered. Practices of transfer from administrative bread price regulation to targeted subsidies for the least protected strata are shown. Analytical results of the dynamics and structure of the assortment of bread baked by large and medium-sized bakeries of the oblast are presented. Ways of improving the current efficiency of the baking branch of the food industry of Kemerovo oblast are determined.
baking industry, baked products, production output, «social» bread, assortment
Bread is a brilliant invention of humankind. Bread-stuffs are major human food products, regularly bought by everyone and everywhere. The supply of the most affordable foodstuff to all strata depends on how effi-ciently this branch functions and develops.
Daily bread consumption in various countries varies from 150 to 500 g per capita. In Russia the average bread consumption rate is up to 330 g a day. The dia-gram of breadstuff consumption in some countries of the European Union is given in Fig. 1. [Consumption of certain foodstuffs per inhabitant. Eurostat. Search database. http://www.eurostat.ee.europa.eu]
According to the Russian Federal Statistics Service (RFSS), the average bread consumption in Russia in 2007-2011 stayed at 119 kg/yr per capita; i.e., we are close to countries with average consumption in this re-spect (Austria, France, and Lithuania, 116.4, 116.7, and 120.8 kg/yr, respectively).
As for the number of businesses, production output, and importance of product output, the baking branch is one of the most crucial areas in Russia's food industry. The special literature and mass media regularly publish analytical materials on Russia's bread market, its characteristics, problems, and trends in its development.
The activity reports of President of the Russian Un-ion of Bakers A.P. Kosovan periodically contain the assessment of the state of affairs in the industry. The Russian baking industry is notable for the leadership of large units, companies, and holding companies, whose share in the total output of baked goods is about 80%.
Among the industry's most serious problems are its obsolete physical infrastructure, low financial stability, shortage of skilled personnel due low labor remunera-tion, the constant growth of fuel and energy tariffs, and unpredictable fluctuations in flour prices. The lasting practice of administrative intervention in economic activities aggravates the financial position of bakeries. The stand of the Russian Union of Bakers is that low-income strata must have targeted government support. Thus far the economy of bakeries is forced to be guided by the income level of the poorest strata, scaffolding the excessive financial load of the unalterably low incomes of its employees and turning Russia's bread baking into the «face of the country's poverty» .
The situation in the bread market was described in a number of articles by N.T. Chubenko, the chief special-ist of the State Research Institute of the Baking Industry, Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, published in the industrial journal Khlebopechenie Ros-sii (Russia's Bread Baking). The author cited data that, in 2010, large bakeries used only 40% of their capacity. At the same time, they produced more than 70% of saleable products. Only 882 such units remained in 2010 (out of the total 12 300 active bakeries); in ten years the number of operating bakeries decreased by more than 1.5 times .
The output of baked goods in the country is steadily decreasing. According to expert forecasts, this market will lose 2% in natural units on average a year and by 2014 it will not exceed 6.5 mln. t. The official statistical data in Table 1, which characterize the change in the output of baked goods in Russia and in the Siberian Federal District (SFD), show that the production dy-namics of bakeries in Kemerovo oblast has a trajectory different from the overall vector in Russia and in the Siberian Federal District.
1. Khlebopekarnaya promyshlennost´ Rossii v 2008–2012. Otchetnyi doklad X s"ezdu Rossiiskogo Soyuza pekarei prezidenta RSP A.P. Kosovana (Russia´s Baking Industry in 2008–2012. Activity Report to X Congress of the Russian Union of Bakers by RUB President A.P. Kosovan), Khlebopechenie Rossii (Russia´s Bread Baking), 2012, No. 5, pp. 6–9.
2. Chubenko, N.T., O situatsii na rynke khleba (Situation in the Bread Market), Khlebopechenie Rossii (Russia´s Bread Baking), 2012, No. 1, pp. 6–8.
3. Zakon Kemerovskoi oblasti ot 8 aprelya 2008 g. No. 23-OZ «O regional´nom fonde zerna Kemerovskoi oblasti» (Law of Kemerovo oblast of April 8, 2008, No. 23-OZ, On the Regional Grain Fund of Kemerovo Oblast).
4. Zdorov´e naseleniya i okruzhayushchaya sreda g. Kemerovo: informatsionnyi sbornik (Human Health and the Envi-ronment of Kemerovo City: An Information Booklet), Kemerovo, 2008.
5. Chubenko, N.T. and Shlelenko, L.A., Razvitie assortimenta khlebobulochnykh izdelii v Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Devel-oping the assortment of baked goods in the Russian Federation), Khlebopechenie Rossii (Russia´s Bread Baking), 2011, No. 1, pp. 8–10.
6. Alferov. A., Rynok khleba i khlebobulochnykh izdelii: realii, perspektivy, tendentsii razvitiya (The market of bread and baked goods: Realities, prospects, and trends of development), Khleboprodukty (Bread products), 2009, No. 2, pp. 60–61.
7. Shaposhnikov, I.I., Kontseptsiya i prognoz razvitiya khlebopekarnoi promyshlennosti Rossii v 2011–2015 gg. (Con-cept and forecast of development of Russia´s baking industry in 2011–2015), Khlebopechenie Rossii (Russia´s Bread Baking), 2011, No. 1, pp. 4–7.