Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
Marker-assisted technologies in the field of plant biotechnology have attracted great interest of scientists seeking to determine the genetic variety and improve specific characteristics of species. Among several types, molecular markers hold great promise due to their high efficiency, adequate accuracy, and good reproducibility. This review aimed to present different molecular markers used in genetic biodiversity studies of common food plants, including potato, corn, and tomato. We presented some of the most frequent molecular markers in terms of their methodologies, advantages, challenges, and applications. We also reviewed the latest advances in the genetic diversity studies of common food plants that contribute to agricultural activities. According to latest progress, Simple Sequence Repeats, Sequence Characterized Amplified Region, and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism are the most common molecular markers in plant diversity studies due to their co-dominancy, high level of polymorphism, great reproducibility, and adequate specificity. Considering common food plants like potato, corn, and tomato, Simple Sequence Repeats and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms provide detailed information about polymorphisms, resistance to pathogens or diseases, genome maps, and population dynamics. However, more research should be conducted to apply the latest and more efficient technologies, such as Next Generation Sequencing, Diversity Array Technologies, and omics, to the genetic diversity studies of plant species. Within the scope of recent progress, this review has a strong potential in providing relevant material for further research. It can serve as a guide to adopt the latest and most efficient sequencing platforms for examining various plant species, primarily potato, corn, and tomato.

Molecular marker, genome sequencing, Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), potato, corn, tomato
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