Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
No agriculture is possible without soil. This article reviews available data on the soils of the Baksan Gorge located in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Russia. The research objective was to collect and analyze information on the soil composition and crop yields in this region of the Central Caucasus. The review covered the last five years of scientific publications cited in Scopus, Web of Science, and Elibrary. It also featured contemporary and archival documents on the soil composition and periglacial agriculture in the Baksan Gorge. The agriculture and cattle breeding started in the Central Caucasus in the first millennium BC when the local peoples began to develop these lands as highland pastures and, subsequently, for agricultural farming. During the second millennium BC, crop production became one of the most important economic sectors in the Central Caucasus. Corn, barley, wheat, and millet were the main agricultural crops in the Baksan Gorge. Millet has always been a traditional Kabardian crop, and millet farming occupied the largest flatland areas. Barley was the staple crop in the highlands. Currently, the list of local staple crops includes corn, wheat, and sunflower. Barley, oats, peas, potatoes, vegetables, berries, nuts, grapes, and annual herbs are also popular. The past fifteen years have seen an extensive development of intensive horticulture in the Baksan Gorge. Agricultural ecology and production problems depend on the localization of agriculture in the Central Caucasus. This research reviewed data on the effect of soil composition on the yield and value of agricultural crops in the Baksan Gorge of the Central Caucasus.

Land use, crops, soil, Central Caucasus, Baksan Gorge
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