In the recent past, the open market policy of Russian economy encouraged a close cooperation between domestic and foreign companies. As a result, some Russian companies became technologically dependant on foreign technologies. As the foreign policy situation grew more and more complicated, the Russian oil and gas complex had to face the problem of import substitution. The technological support of the Russian Arctic energy complex has become one of the most relevant state issues as Russia strives to overcome the economic and technological sanctions imposed by the US and the European Union.
technological independence, sanctions, import substitution, Arctic, energy projects
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