Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
New humanities, e.g. sociobiology, human ethology, evolutionary anthropology, etc., have delivered a lot of new knowledge. As a result, scientists have to update some old traditional concepts. The research objective was to examine the phenomenon of solidarity in the context of new approaches. The author compared the biological and anthropological characteristics of this phenomenon and defined it via specifically social forms of human interaction and historical cases. The connectivity of biological communities and the solidarity of human associations revealed some similarities and differences. Human abilities for self-restraint and discipline are consequence of the conscious nature of solidarity. Solidarity as a specifically social form of interaction does not result from the psychological characteristics of people. It expresses the ways people interact with each other, according to their number and degree of convergence. The most important psychological sign of the solidarity of natural groups is their organicity, or integrity, as well as the mutual coordination of individual feelings and experiences. Solidarity is the cohesion of human communities, based on historical types of social interaction. The degree of unfavorable environment and the degree of internal coordination of interests and feelings determine the degree of unity of the group. The author identified two main stable forms of solidarity in history – organic and rationalized. The historical dynamics of the division of labor and personalization determine these forms of solidarity. The author also established the following historical forms of organic solidarity: patrimonial, family-clan, egalitarian, class, and chiliastic.

anthropological aspect, socio-historical aspect, connectedness of biological communities, solidarity in society, social interaction, organic solidarity, rationalized solidarity, clan solidarity, family-clan solidarity, egalitarian solidarity, corporate solidarity, chiliastic solidarity
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