This article is devoted to the state-of-the-art systemic approach to the analysis and synthesis of process flows for the production of instant polydisperse granular functional beverages. The distinctive feature of these studies is the methodological approach developed by Academician V.A. Panfilov, representing a quantitative description of the integrity level of a large production process in a technological complex, based on the results of its diagnostics and comprising sequential transition in studies from a system of technologies to a system of processes and form a system of processes to a system of apparatuses and machines. The definition of a technological system as an interrelated whole creates a certain logic and methodology of its qualitative and quantitative study and develops a system-centered opinion on production.
process flow, granular, instant, disperse, system, analysis, synthesis
Extensive materials accumulated as a result of studies on the production of instant food products currently represent a totality of specific solutions (mainly, empirical) and do not give an insight into the shaping theoretical basics of instantization techniques, economic expediency, and energy consumption, which insistently require systematization and generalization. With all the diversity of technologies for the production of instant, quick-dispersing, and quick-swelling beverages, which are called in a word instant in foreign literature, there is neither a single classification nor a single approach to the formation of such production technologies and processes.
Technological flows in the production of dry granular beverages cannot be viewed either as a sum of known individual technologies, the dry concentrate technology, and the granulation and drying technology or as a sum of individual physicochemical phenomena and processes. Each influences both directly and indirectly the process of the formation of a polydisperse multicomponent system with properties of an instant product.
The definition of a technological system as an interrelated whole creates a certain logic and methodology of its qualitative and quantitative studies and develops a system-centered opinion on production. We may say that the technological system actively influences its components and transforms them.
In the real conditions of interaction between these two systems, technological and disperse, it is obvious that they should be considered as a complex, taking into account their integrated essence, optimizing production, and taking it to a totally different level. Without learning the essence of phenomena, it is impossible to create a new whole.
Building a model of fast-prepared beverages also determines the choice of process-flow equipment. In the theory of systems, the making of the most rational decisions and the optimization of system control in the broadest meaning of this term have led to the appearance within system analysis of a section on decision making in the conditions of the so-called unique choice [1, 2, 5, 7, 9].
The unique-choice situation is characterized by three necessary elements: a problem to be resolved, a designer of a technology or a process flow who makes decisions, and a few alternatives from which to choose.
THE PRINCIPLES OF SYSTEMATIZATION OF INSTANT-PRODUCT TECHNOLOGIES
Literary sources [3, 5, 8] give us a number of instant-product technologies. Let us consider the main principles of their systematization. As a rule, decisions in frequently recurring situations also recur and are transferred, proceeding from the similarity criterion, to similar problems. Obviously, these are complex, nonstandard, and unique in their own way situations that deserve special attention of process-flow designers.
In addition, we should bear in mind a number of specific features of the principles of systematization of instant-product technologies.
Usually, we fail to assess fully every proposed alternative by one numerical criterion, for example, by porosity or by solubility. However, when making a multicriterion assessment of each alternative, we face two problems:
- whether we have taken into account all material indicators (completeness of the indicator list) and
- methodological difficulties when we simultaneously compare various criteria, for example, the native and gustative properties of a product, as well as its porosity, solubility, wettability, and strength (the dimensionality rule).
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