Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
This article is dedicated to the development of new nonfat dairy products and methods of improving the quality of low-calorie foods. Advantages and drawbacks of the consumer properties of nonfat dairy products are shown. Some carbohydrate and protein fat imitators are characterized. The advantages of protein fat imitators are shown that are able not only to increase the protein content but also to add a creamy flavor to nonfat products. Possible options of using whey protein microparticulates as fat imitators in the production of nonfat dairy products are considered. The research findings are given on the use of whey protein microparticulates in the production of dairy products with higher protein contents: curd products, sweetened condensed milk, and natural cheeses: thermal-acid, soft acid-rennet, and brined.

nonfat dairy products, butterfat imitator, whey protein microparticulate, milk-protein product, soft acid-rennet cheese, brined cheese, thermal-acid cheese, curds, condensed milk


Among the distinctive features of the food patterns of economically developed countries, including the Russian Federation, is a high energy capacity of the food ration. Taking into account decreased physical loads, prevailing trends toward sedentary lifestyles, and the increased share of intellectual work, the excessive consumption of food nutrients, particularly fats and carbohydrates, is becoming a very urgent problem. According to the formula of balanced nutrition, the daily demand of the human organism for fats is 102 g; however, the analysis of the macronutrient status of Russians shows the exceedance of this indicator by more than two times. The World Health Organization registers a firm growth in the number of people with progressing civilizational diseases: obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases [1].

Western countries and the United States faced long ago the consequences of overweight, which may lead to hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, gall-bladder disease, osteoarthritis, dyspnea, breast cancer, rectal cancer, diabetes, asthma, hormonal disorders, and reproduction problems, to say nothing of psycho-logical stresses and complexes, developing against the worsening outer appearance.

In this context, the reduction of the caloricity of food rations, in particular, by reducing the consumption of fats, is very opportune. The reduction of the calori-city of dairy products at least by 25–50% can largely contribute to the prevention of obesity and other alimentary diseases. In addition, all other components (proteins, vitamins, minerals, and microelements) in low-calorie dairy products should be preserved, consequently, retaining the nutritive value of these products and their health benefits. Developed countries of the world have long ago switched to the preemptive production of low-calorie dairy products, which constitute more than 90% of the total dairy output.

The development of new low-calorie dairy products with considerably reduced fat contents is associated with a number of difficulties, the most problematic of which is the reproduction of the organoleptic properties of traditional full-fat products. Defatted dairy products most often have a number of flaws: too hard, resilient, or coarse consistency, poor taste and aroma; for nonfat curds, it is mealiness and the appearance of curd semolina. The more these flaws are expressed, the less fat content is in the product [2].

A way to improve the organoleptic properties of nonfat dairy products is the use of fat imitators in dairy production.

Fat imitators are substances that create the illusion of fat presence in the mouth when consumed. In addition, they either contain no calories or very few of them.

Of special importance here is the search for effective fat imitators, whether artificial or, which is more preferable, natural food components that preserve to the maximum the sensory properties of nonfat products, mainly, their texture, and simultaneously reduce their energy value [1].

Fat imitators are produced on carbohydrate, protein, and fatty bases or their combinations.

Most widespread as butterfat imitators are vegetable fats and oils. Their use makes it possible to increase the amount of deficient polyunsaturated fatty acids and improve the biological effect indicator. However, the caloricity of products on their basis does not change [1].

Among the most progressive and innovative methods of improving the quality of low-calorie foods, we may distinguish low-calorie fat imitators, namely, carbohydrate- and protein-based.

Carbohydrate fat imitators are made from gums, vegetable gel, modified food starch, or grain fibers. Carbohydrate fat substitutes absorb water and imitate fat volume and structure; they are used in the production of baked goods, prefabricated meat products, spreads, soups, salad dressings, icings, and frozen desserts [3].



1. Mel´nikova, E.I. and Stanislavskaya, E.B., Whey protein microparticulates as butterfat imitators in food pro-duction, Fundamental´nye issled. (Basic Res.), 2009. № 7. P. 22–23.

2. Shidlovskaya, V.P., Organolepticheskie svoistva moloka i molochnykh productov. Spravochnik (Organoleptic Properties of Milk and Dairy Products: Handbook) (Kolos, Moscow, 2000). 280 p.

3. Smirnova, I.A., Shtrigul´, V.K., and Smirnov, D.A., Studying milk protein properties in order to form protein imitators of fat, in Actual´nye problemy tekhniki i technologii pererabotki moloka: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem (Topical Problems of Milk Processing Equipment and Technology: A Collection of Works with International Participation) (Barnaul, 2012). No. 9. P. 215–222.

4. Pszezola, D.E., Carbohydrate-based ingredient performs like fat for use in a variety of food applications, Food Technol., 1991. V. 45. № 8. R. 262–263, 276.

5. Kucner, J.F., Oatrim – a new fat replacer, Food Ingredients Eur. Conf. Proc., Paris, 8–10 Oct., 1991 (Maars-sen, 1991). P. 168–172.

6. Akoch, C.C., Fat replacers, Food Technol., 1998. V. 52. № 3. R. 47–53.

7. Fat substitution gains pace, Food Ingredients and Process., 1992. Feb. p. 28.

8. US Patent № 4830787.

9. Manylov, S.V., The study of the effect of denatured whey proteins on the properties of low-calorie milk-protein products, Cand. Sci. (Eng.) Dissertation (Moscow, 2009). 125 p.

10. Singer, N. S., and Moser, R.H., Microparticulated proteins as fat substitutes, in Altschul, A.M., Low Calorie Foods Handbook, Ed. by Dekker, M. (New York, 1993). Chap. 9.

11. Mel´nikova, E.I., Ponomarev, A.N., and Popova, E.E., Milk proteins in ice cream technology, Molochnaya prom-st´ (Dairy Industry), 2012. № 12. P. 64–65.

12. Mel´nikova, E.I., Stanislavskaya, E.B., Podgornyi, N.A., and Chunosova, E.V., A symbiotic product based on whey protein microparticulates, Syrodelie maslodelie (Cheesemaking Buttermaking), 2010. № 6. P. 26–27.

13. Ponomarev, A.N., Mel´nikova, E.I., and Losev, A.N., Microparticulated whey proteins in the symbiotic product technology, Molochnaya prom-st´ (Dairy Industry), 2013. № 7. P. 62–63.

14. Gershoff, S.N., Nutrition evaluation of dietary fat substitutes. Nutrition Reviews, 1995. № 11. http://www/

15. Clareto, S.S. et al., Influence of a protein concentrate used as a fat substitute on the quality of cheese bread, Brazilian Archives Biol. Technol., 2006. V. 49. № 6. P. 1019–1025.

16. Dietary fat replacers.

17. Baranov, S.A., Microparticulation units in modern milk production, Pererabotka moloka (Milk Processing), 2012. № 8 (153). P. 14.

18. Al´pma Co.´s complex whey processing technologies, Syrodelie maslodelie (Cheesemaking Buttermaking), 2012. № 4. P. 48.

19. Dorman, E.S., Fat substitute.

20. US Patent № 4734287.

Login or Create
* Forgot password?