Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
Tomatoes are reported to be the most consumed and processed food in the world. The correlation has been specified between the tomato food consumption expansion and reduction in the risk of certain diseases, including cancer. Researchers from across the globe concentrate on tomato and processing technologies to ensure preservation of its physical, chemical and biological properties. A range of researches have been held to analyze capacities to use tomato components known for high antioxidant activity as potential biologically active compounds. Commonly, such studies concentrate on ripen red tomatoes, though works may be defined that studied green, yellow and orange fruits. There is evidence on correlation between qualitative and quantitative fruit properties and agricultural technologies and tomato varieties used. Bio-fertilizers consisting of microorganisms, defining the plant microbiome, favorably work on quality improvement of agrocultural plants, including tomatoes. Limited irrigation, illumination and other conditions that cause internal plant stress and provoke numerous protective reactions result in mixed findings, where the yield depends on other factors (grade, climate, fertilizers, etc.). Tomato derived products are rich in antioxidant substances the same as waste products. A variety of works focused to study processing techniques and their impact on the tomato quality characteristics. Traditionally, thermal effect decreases the activity of various antioxidant compounds, but makes them more digestible when consumed. The UV exposure used for long to inhibit pathogens on surface of fruits and berries, that cause the spoilage during the storage period, showed its potential to increase the antioxidant activity of fruit and vegetable products as they ripen

Tomatoes, antioxidant characteristics, treatment and processing techniques
Science Evolution, 2017, vol. 2, no. 155are destructed. The loss of lycopene was minor when the tomato sub-product was heated to 90°C and 100°C for 7 minutes. However, it was noted that the heating results in an increase in bioavailability of certain carotenoids and destruction of the cell wall. Absorption of lycopene contained in pre-heated tomato juice and sauce is higher in the intestine walls than that contained in ripe fruits [70]. The effect of heating temperature was studied on tomato juice produced by standard technology. To reduce wastes, the product was thermally heated within the temperature range from 50 to 80°C. Wastes were found to considerably reduce when heated up to 60°C. At lower heating temperature, vitamin C less destroyed. The storage property of carotenoids signicantly enhanced with the rise in temperature. The tomato juice produced was then sterilized and canned being aging for 15-20 minutes at 100°C prior to be cooled. The nished product retained all its nutritional ingredient contained in the product prepared by standard technology, though the levels of vitamin C and carotenoids were higher [71].The jelly tomato drink (starch drink) was studied [72]. Fresh red tomatoes were heated in the water bath at 85°C for 10 minutes, then chopped and ltered. To obtain the tomato juice, water was added to the mixture so that the nal volume was three times more than the original. Sugar and primary gelling agents were then added, heated at 90°C for 10 minutes. To remove the characteristic smell, the lemon juice was then added (2.8%, 5.6%, 8.4% and 11.2% of the total volume). The jelly drink was poured into cups with lids to cool. The higher level of lycopene was found in the jelly product (twice as much as in fresh tomatoes). The added lemon juice increased the antioxidant activity increasing the amount of vitamin C and total acid, though it did not change the lycopene content.The authors [73] studied the effect caused to antioxidant characteristics of the tomato sauce made by commercial and home methods. The commercial method for tomato sauce production consisted of stages as follow: washing, cold disintegration (73°C, 10 min), evaporation (11° by the Brix scale, 73°C), pasteurization (110°С, 90 sec). Home way of production: washing, slicing of small fruit (~10 sm3), grinding with a household blender. The resulting mixture was boiled for 60 minutes at 100 °C. In both cases, the nished sauce contained seeds and peel fractions hardly removed during the process. It was found that the commercial processing of tomato fruits to the sauce increased the total antioxidant capacity, approximately 1.2 times, where these properties decreased during home production. The content of rutin increased by 36% during the commercial process and decreased by 26% during the home production as compared with that in fresh fruits. In vitro studies of digestion revealed an increase in the antioxidant bioavailability.The commercial production of tomato sauce is achieved through two disintegration techniques: hot and cold [74]. For the hot method of disintegration (used in thermal processes like drying, heating, pasteurization), the operating temperature ranges between 85°C and 90°C, and for the cold process - it is below 70°C. The hot method inactivates enzymes associated with avor and taste, the cold method increases the enzyme activity associated with lesser viscosity. Different stages of these methods of tomato sauce production gave different results. The cold method shows higher antioxidant activity than the tomato sauce made by hot method, though their bioavailability was higher.The work [75] rst compared the nutrient content of red and yellow tomatoes upon examination of three different groups of phytonutrients (carotenoids, polyphenols and vitamin C) after the standard heat treatment and freeze-drying. Samples of two tomato genotypes grown in the greenhouse in the south of France were studied with red (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Cheers, De Ruiter) and yellow (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. 6205, Séminis) fruits. The heat treatment caused a decrease in total phenolic content from 20% to 30%, vitamin C almost by 5 times as less both in red and yellow fruits. Upon lyophilization, the β-carotene reduced by 14% and 11% in red and yellow tomatoes, respectively, and the lycopene decreased by 47% in red tomatoes. The content of vitamin C increased by about 10% in red fruits and decreased in yellow fruits. The volume of common phenolic substances increased negligibly in red tomatoes and decreased by 25% in yellow. The observed complex changes upon thermal treatment and lyophilization in red and yellow tomatoes require further studies of other tomato varieties.Luqmon et al. [76] studies the effect of heat treatment at 50°С, 60°С and 70°С (in the vacuum oven) during the drying process from 30 to 300 minutes for the content of polyphenols and carotenoids. As compared with raw tomatoes, better antioxidant activity was reported in tomato slices heat treated at any temperature within 30-60 minutes, as well as at the temperature 70°С for 90 minutes. Signicant decrease in antioxidant activity was reported for all samples heat treated at any temperature for 150-300 minutes. The antioxidant activity of tomato slices increased as the drying temperature increased from 50°С to 70°С, and decreased as the drying time increased from 30 to 300 minutes.The authors [77] developed the technology of reduced drying of tomato stock to ensure more complete preservation of initial content of valuable components by using the inert gas as a drying agent. The nutritional value of products was assessed upon the convection drying to show that tomatoes dried by the new technology are products of high quality product in terms of their physical and chemical properties and digestibility. At the same time, proteins, lipids, sugars and vitamin C are relatively well conserved.Tomatoes of about 90% initial humidity were dried in Davis (California) at 10% of relative humidity. The temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation values were studied both outside and inside each dryer to dene the effect of the solar energy concentrator to the rate of tomato drying. The concentrate efciency included the reducing in drying time by 21% due to a temperature rise inside the dryer and the relative humidity lowered. Science Evolution, 2017, vol. 2, no. 156No considerable differences in the lycopene and vitamin C content in dried tomatoes in dryers with and without the concentrator [78]. Fruit drying is almost the only way to preserve food for African countries known for the hot climate and total poverty.CONCLUSIONTomato is one of the most widespread vegetable crops in the world; about one third of tomato is processed for consumption. Processed tomato products are getting more demanded year by. Both fresh tomatoes and processed tomato products are reported to have high nutritional value by the content of various elements: vitamins (C and E), folates, carotenoids and phenolic compounds. Tomato is the main source of lycopene for the Western diet. Carotenoid is responsible for the typical red color. As per epidemiological studies, people consuming tomato products with high lycopene stand higher chance of cancer disease prevention. Having considering a variety of methods and conditions for tomato best growth, maturation and processing, we may conclude that any food processing reduces its nutritional value due to the loss of vitamins (primarily, of vitamin C). Many researches are performed to the extent of studying the content of particular tomato nutrients upon processing when they are cooked, for example, carotenoids, phenolic compounds and vitamin C. Apparently, the content of the above is related to species differences of tomatoes to higher extent which proves mixed results in similar works. Thermal treatment is well known to destroy plenty of wholesome substances, especially at high temperature and long processing. Antioxidant substances are reported to be destroyed, either, though they increase in bioavailability with consumption. Therefore, the tomato processing is recommended to combine with the heat treatment at lower temperatures and for shorter period.Unfortunately, we dis not nd open publications with studies of tomato nutrient variations in home-made conserved food products to be highly demanded within our country. This could be the subject of future researches.In our opinion, works to be of greatest concern are aimed at the analysis of correlation between the nutritional content, especially the content of antioxidant substances, and the extent to which tomato fruits are exposed to UV light. Samples of tomato and tomato products retained plenty of physical and chemical qualities only upon UV treatment (total solubility of solids, pH, water activity, color, titrated acidity and clarity) with reduced microbiological surface damage. Researches specied the UV exposure potential to enhance activity of certain biologically active compounds (total content of phenolic compounds). Despite the negative effect on the lycopene and ascorbic acid content, the antioxidant activity did not reduce, in principle. Thus, UV exposure is the challenging method for the development of functional products for cancer. It requires further study of dosage and exposure time on tomatoes grown within the Russian territory and tomato derivative products.

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